(the courier), a man or a family immediately descended from Ashur. "father of Tekoa," by his second wife Naarah. (1 Chronicles 4:6) (B.C. after 1450.)
Habaiah, Or Habajah
(whom Jehovah hides). Bene-Habaiah were among the sons of the priests who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:61; Nehemiah 7:63) (B.C. before 459).
Habakkuk Or Habakkuk
(embrace), the eighth in order of the minor prophets. Of the facts of the prophet's life we have no certain information. He probably lived about the twelfth or thirteenth year of Josiah, B.C.630 or 629.
Habakkuk, Prophecy Of
consists of three chapters, in the first of which he foreshadows the invasion of Judea by the Chaldeans, and in the second he foretells the doom of the Chaldeans. The whole concludes with the magnificent psalm in ch.3, a composition unrivalled for boldness of conception, sublimity of thought and majesty of diction.
(light of Jehovah), apparently the head of one of the families of the Rechabites. (Jeremiah 35:3) (B.C. before 589.)
a coat of mail covering the neck and breast. [Arms, Armor]
(beautiful banks), the "river of Gozan," (2 Kings 17:6) and 2Kin 18:11 Is identified beyond all reasonable doubt with the famous affluent of the Euphrates, which is called Aborrhas and Chaboras by ancient writers, and now Khabour.
(whom Jehovah enlightens), the father of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 1:1; 10:1)
Hachilah, The Hill
a hill apparently situated in a wood in the wilderness or waste land in the neighborhood of Ziph, in Judah, in the fastnesses or passes of which David and his six hundred followers were lurking when the Ziphites informed Saul of his whereabouts. (1 Samuel 23:19) comp.1Sam 23:14,15,18
(wise) Son of, and The Hach'monite. (1 Chronicles 11:11; 27:32) Hachmon or Hachmoni was no doubt the founder of a family to which these men belonged: the actual father of Jashobeam was Zabdiel, (1 Chronicles 27:2) and he is also said to have belonged to the Korhites. (1 Chronicles 12:6) (B.C. before 1046.)
(mighty), originally the indigenous appellation of the sun among the Syrians, and thence transferred to the king as the highest of earthly authorities. The title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh. It is found occasionally in the altered form Hadar. (Genesis 25:15; 36:39) compared with 1 Chronicles 1:30,50
+ Son of Ishmael. (Genesis 25:15; 1 Chronicles 1:30) + A king of Edom who gained an important victory over the Midianites on the field of Moab. (Genesis 36:35; 1 Chronicles 1:46)
+ Also a king of Edom, with Pau for his capital. (1 Chronicles 1:50)
Jaziz the Hagerite, i.e. the descendant of Hagar, had the charge of David's sheep. (1 Chronicles 27:31)
(festive), the tenth in order of the minor prophets, and first of those who prophesied after the captivity. With regard to his tribe and parentage history and tradition are alike silent.
Haggai, Prophecy Of
The style of Haggai is generally tame and prosaic, though at times it rises to the dignity of severe invective when the prophet rebukes his countrymen for their selfish indolence and neglect of God's house. But the brevity of the prophecies is so great, and the poverty of expression which characterizes them so striking, as to give rise to a conjecture, not without reason, that in their present form they are but the outline or summary of the original discourses. They were delivered in the second year of Darius Hystaspes (B.C.620), at intervals from the 1st day of the 6th month to the 24th day of the 9th month in the same year.
(wanderer) was one of the mighty men of David's guard, according to (1 Chronicles 11:38) The parallel passage— (2 Samuel 23:36)—has "Bani the Gadite," which is probably the correct reading. (B.C.1046.)
(festive), second son of Gad. (Genesis 46:16; Numbers 26:15)
(festival of Jehovah), a Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:30)
a Gadite family sprung from Haggi. (Numbers 26:15)
(festive; a dancer), one of David's wives, the mother of Adonijah. (2 Samuel 3:4; 1 Kings 1:6) (B.C.1053.)
Same as Ai.
The Hebrews were fully alive to the importance of the hair as an element of personal beauty. Long hair was admired in the case of young men. (2 Samuel 14:26) In times of affliction the hair was altogether cut off. (Isaiah 3:17,24; 15:2; Jeremiah 7:29) Tearing the hair (Ezra 9:3) and letting it go dishevelled were similar tokens of grief. The usual and favorite color of the hair was black, (Song of Solomon 5:11) as is indicated in the comparisons in (Song of Solomon 1:5; 4:1) a similar hue is probably intended by the purple of (Song of Solomon 7:6) Pure white hair was deemed characteristic of the divine Majesty. (Daniel 7:9; Revelation 1:14) The chief beauty of the hair consisted in curls, whether of a natural or an artificial character. With regard to the mode of dressing the hair, we have no very precise information; the terms used are of a general character, as of Jezebel, (2 Kings 9:30) and of Judith, ch.10:3, and in the New Testament, (1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Peter 3:3) The arrangement of Samson's hair into seven locks, or more properly braids, (Judges 16:13,19) involves the practice of plaiting, which was also familiar to the Egyptians and Greeks. The locks were probably kept in their place by a fillet, as in Egypt. The Hebrews like other nations of antiquity, anointed the hair profusely with ointments, which were generally compounded of various aromatic ingredients, (Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalm 23:6; 92:10; Ecclesiastes 9:8) more especially on occasions of festivity or hospitality. (Luke 7:46) It appears to have been the custom of the Jews in our Saviour's time to swear by the hair, (Matthew 5:36) much as the Egyptian women still swear by the side-locks, and the men by their beards.
(young). Johanan son,of Hakkatan, was the chief of the Bene-Azgad who returned from Babylon with Ezra. (Ezra 8:12)
(thorn), a priest, the chief of the seventh course in the service of the sanctuary, as appointed by David. (1 Chronicles 24:10) In (Ezra 2:61) and Nehemiah 3:4,21 The name occurs again as Koz in the Authorized Version.
(bent). Bene-Hakupha were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:61; Nehemiah 7:63)
is probably a different place from the Calah of (Genesis 10:11) It may be identified with the Chalcitis of Ptolemy.
(smooth), The mount, a mountain twice, and twice only, named, was the southern limit of Joshua's conquests, (Joshua 11:17; 12:7) but which has not yet been identified.
(trembling), a town of Judah in the mountain district. (Joshua 16:68) The name still remains unaltered attached to a conspicuous hill a mile to the left of the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, between three and four miles from the latter.
(necklace), a town on the boundary of Asher, named between Helkath and Beten. (Joshua 19:25)
used of the court of the high priest's house. (Luke 22:55) In (Matthew 27:27) and Mark 15:16 "Hall" is synonymous with "praetorium," which in (John 18:28) is in Authorized Version "judgment hall."
(praise ye the Lord). [Alleluia]
(enchanter), one of the chief of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:24) (B.C.410.)
Shallum, son of Halohesh was "ruler of the half part of Jerusalem" at the time of the repair of the wall by Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:12) (B.C.446.)
(doubtful). Bene-Hattil were among the children of Solomon's slaves "who came back from captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:57; Nehemiah 7:59) (B.C.536.)
+ The name of one of the three sons of Noah, apparently the second in age. (B.C.2448.) Of the history of Ham nothing is related except his irreverence to his father and the curse which that patriarch pronounced. The sons of Ham are stated, to have been "Cush and Mizraim and Phut and Canaan." (Genesis 10:6) comp.1Chr 1:8 Egypt is recognized as the "land of Ham" in the Bible. (Psalm 78:51; 105:23; 106:22) The other settlements of the sons of Ham are discussed under their respective names. The three most illustrious Hamite nations—the Cushites, the Phoenicians and the Egyptians—were greatly mixed with foreign peoples. Their architecture has a solid grandeur that we look for in vain elsewhere.
+ According to the present text, (Genesis 14:5) Chedorlaomer and his allies smote the Zuzim in a place called Ham, probably in the territory of the Ammonites (Gilead), east of the Jordan.
(magnificent), the chief minister or vizier of King Ahasuerus. (Esther 3:1) (B.C.473.) After the failure of his attempt to cut off all the Jews in the Persian empire, he was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai. The Targum and Josephus interpret the inscription of him—the Agagite—as signifying that he was of Amalekitish descent. The Jews hiss whenever his name is mentioned on the day of Purim.
(fortress), the principal city of upper Syria, was situated in the valley of the Orontes, which it commanded from the low screen of hills which forms the water-shed between the source of the Orontes and Antioch. The Hamathites were a Hamitic race, and are included among the descendants of Canaan. (Genesis 10:18) Nothing appears of the power of Hamath until the time of David. (2 Samuel 8:9) Hamath seems clearly to have been included in the dominions of Solomon. (1 Kings 4:21-24) The "store-cities" which Solomon "built in Hamath," (2 Chronicles 8:4) were perhaps staples for trade. In the Assyrian inscriptions of the time of Ahab (B.C.900) Hamath appears as a separate power, in alliance with the Syrians of Damascus, the Hittites and the Phoenicians. About three-quarters of a century later Jeroboam the Second "recovered Hamath." (2 Kings 14:28) Soon afterwards the Assyrians took it, (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13) etc., and from this time it ceased to be a place of much importance. Antiochus Epiphanes changed its name to Epiphaneia. The natives, however, called it Hamath even in St. Jerome's time, and its present name, Hamah, is but slightly altered from the ancient form.
one of the families descended from Canaan, named last in the list. (Genesis 10:18; 1 Chronicles 1:16)
(fortress of Zobah), (2 Chronicles 8:3) has been conjectured to be the same as Hamath. But the name Hamath-Zobah would seem rather suited to another Hamath which was distinguished from the "Great Hamath" by the suffix "Zobah."
(warm springs), one of the fortified cities in the territory allotted to Naphtali. (Joshua 19:35) It was near Tiberias, one mile distant, and had its name Chammath, "hot baths," because it contained those of Tiberias. In the list of Levitical cities given out of Naphtali, (Joshua 21:32) the name of this place seems to be given as HAMMOTH-DOR.
(double), father of the infamous Haman. (Esther 3:1,10; 8:5; 9:24)
lit. "the king, " unnecessarily rendered in the Authorized Version as a proper name. (Jeremiah 36:26; 38:6)
(the queen), a daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead. (1 Chronicles 7:17,18) (B.C. between 1706 and 1491.)
+ A city in Asher, (Joshua 19:28) apparently not far from Zidon-rabbah.
+ A city allotted out of the tribe of Naphtali to the Levites, (1 Chronicles 6:76) and answering to the somewhat similar names Hammath and HAMMOTH-DOR in Joshua.
(dwelling of the warm springs). [Hammath]
(multitude), the name of a city mentioned in Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 39:16)
(the multitude of God), The valley of, the name to be bestowed on the ravine or glen, previously known as "the ravine of the passengers on the east of the sea," after the burial there of "God and all his multitude." (Ezekiel 39:11,15)
(an ass), a Hivite who at the time of the entrance of Jacob on Palestine was prince of the land and city of Shechem. (Genesis 33:19; 34:2,4,6,8,13,18,20,24,26) (B.C.1737.) [Dinah]
(heat, i.e. wrath, of God), a man of Simeon, of the family of Shaul. (1 Chronicles 4:26)
(pitied), the younger son of Pharez, Judah's son by Tamar. (Genesis 46:12; 1 Chronicles 2:5) (B.C. between 1706-1688.)
the family of the preceding. (Numbers 26:21)
(akin to the dew), daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah; one of the wives of King Josiah. (2 Kings 23:31; 24:18; Jeremiah 52:1) (B.C.632-619.)
(whom God graciously gave), son of Shallum and cousin of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 32:7,8,9,12) and comp. Jeremiah 32:44 (B.C.589.)
+ One of the chief people of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:23)
+ The last of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:38; 9:44) (B.C.588.)
+ "Son of Maachah," i.e. possibly a Syrian of Aram-maachah, one of the heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:43) (B.C.1046).
+ The sons of Hanan were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:46; Nehemiah 7:49) (B.C.536).
+ One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in his public exposition of the law. (Nehemiah 8:7) (B.C.446.) The same person is probably mentioned in ch. (Nehemiah 10:10)
+ One of the "heads" of "the people," who also sealed the covenant. (Nehemiah 10:22) (B.C.410.)
+ Another of the chief laymen on the same occasion. (Nehemiah 10:26)
+ Son of Zaccur, son of Mattaniah, whom Nehemiah made one of the store. keepers of the provisions collected as tithes. (Nehemiah 13:13)
+ Son of Igdaliah. (Jeremiah 35:4) (B.C.410.)
(whom God graciously gave), The tower of, a tower which formed part of the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:1; 12:39) From these two passages, particularly from the former, it might almost be inferred that Hananeel was but another name for the tower of Meah; at any rate they were close together, and stood between the sheep-gate and the fish-gate. This tower is further mentioned in (Jeremiah 31:38) The remaining passage in which it is named, (Zechariah 14:10) also connects this tower with the "corner-gate," which lay on the other side of the sheep-gate.
+ One of the sons of Heman, and head of the eighteenth course of the service. (1 Chronicles 25:4,25)
+ A seer who rebuked (B.C.941) Asa king of Judah. (2 Chronicles 16:7) For this he was imprisoned. ver.10 He or another Hanani was the father of Jehu the seer, who testified against Baasha, (1 Kings 16:1,7) and Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 19:2; 20:34) + One of the priests who in the time of Ezra had taken strange wives. (Ezra 10:20)
+ A brother of Nehemiah, (Nehemiah 1:2) who was made governor of Jerusalem under Nehemiah. Ch. (Nehemiah 7:2)
+ A priest mentioned in (Nehemiah 12:36)
(gift of God).
+ One of the fourteen sons of Heman, and chief of the sixteenth course of singers. (1 Chronicles 25:4,5,23) (B.C.1014.) + A general in the army of King Uzziah. (2 Chronicles 26:11) + Father of Zedekiah, in the reign of Jehoiakim. (B.C. before 605.)
+ Son of Azur, a Benjamite of Gibeon and a false prophet in the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah. In the fourth year of his reign, B.C.595, Hananiah withstood Jeremiah the prophet, and publicly prophesied in the temple that within two years Jeconiah and all his fellow captives with the vessels of the Lord's house, should be brought back to Jerusalem. (Jeremiah 28:1) ... Hananiah corroborated his prophecy by taking from off the neck of Jeremiah the yoke which he wore by divine command. (Jeremiah 27:1) ... and breaking it. But Jeremiah was bidden to go tell Hananiah that for the wooden yokes which he had broken he should make yokes of iron, so firm was the dominion of Babylon destined to he for seventy years. The prophet Jeremiah added to this rebuke the prediction of Hananiah's death, the fulfillment of which closes the history of this false prophet.
+ Grandfather of Irijah, the captain of the ward at the gate of Benjamin who arrested Jeremiah on the charge of deserting to the Chaldeans. (Jeremiah 37:13) (B.C. before 589.)
+ Head of a Benjamite house. (1 Chronicles 8:24)
+ The Hebrew name of Shadrach. He was of the house of David, according to Jewish tradition (Daniel 1:3,6,7,11,19; 2:17) + Son of Zerubbabel, (1 Chronicles 3:19) from whom Christ derived his descent. He is the same person who is by St. Luke called Joanna. (B.C. after 536.)
+ One of the sons of Bebai who returned with Ezra from Babylon (Ezra 10:28) (B.C.459.)
+ A priest, one of the makers of the sacred ointments and incense, who built a portion of the wall of Jerusalem in the days of Nehemiah.
+ Head of the priestly course of Jeremiah in the days of Joiakim. (Nehemiah 12:12) (B.C.610.)
+ Ruler of the palace at Jerusalem under Nehemiah. The arrangements for guarding the gates of Jerusalem were intrusted to him with Hanani the Tirshatha's brother. (Nehemiah 7:2,3) (B.C.446.)
+ An Israelite. (Nehemiah 10:23)
(the favor of God), son of Ephod and prince of Manasseh. (Numbers 34:23)
(Acts 18:3; 19:25; Revelation 18:22) A trade was taught to ail the Jewish boys as a necessary part of their education. Even the greatest rabbis maintained themselves by trades (Delitzsch). Says Rabbi Jehuda, "He who does not teach his son a trade is much the same as if he taught him to be a thief". In the present article brief notice only can be given of such handicraft trades as are mentioned in Scripture.
+ Smiths or metal-workers.—The preparation of iron for use either in war, in agriculture or for domestic purposes was doubtless one of the earliest applications of labor; and together with iron, working in brass, or rather copper alloyed with tin (bronze), is mentioned as practiced in antediluvian times. (Genesis 4:22) After the establishment of the Jews in Canaan, the occupation of a smith became recognized as a distinct employment- (1 Samuel 13:19) The smith's work and its results are often mentioned in Scripture. (2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Kings 6:7; 2 Chronicles 26:14; Isaiah 44:12; 54:16) The worker in gold and silver must have found employment among both the Hebrews and the neighboring nations in very early times. (Genesis 24:22,53; 35:4; 38:18) Various processes of the goldsmith's work are illustrated by Egyptian monuments. After the conquest frequent notices are found of both moulded and wrought metal, including soldering.
+ Carpenters are often mentioned in Scripture. (Genesis 6:14; Exodus 37; Isaiah 44:13) In the palace built by David for himself the workmen employed were chiefly foreigners. (2 Samuel 5:11) That the Jewish carpenters must have been able to carve with some skill is evident from (Isaiah 41:7; 44:13) In the New Testament the occupation of a carpenter is mentioned in connection with Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary, and ascribed to our Lord himself. (Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3) The trade included our cabinet work as well as carpentering. + The masons employed by David and Solomon, at least the chief of them, were Phoenicians. (1 Kings 5:18; Ezekiel 27:9) The large stones used in Solomon's temple are said by Josephus to have been fitted together exactly without either mortar or clamps, but the foundation stones to have been fastened with lead. For ordinary building mortar was used; sometimes, perhaps, bitumen, as was the case at Babylon. (Genesis 11:3) The wall "daubed with untempered mortar" of (Ezekiel 13:10) was perhaps a sort of cob-wall of mud or clay without lime, which would give way under heavy rain. The use of whitewash on tombs is remarked by our Lord. (Matthew 23:27)
+ Ship-building must have been exercised to some extent for the fishing-vessels on the Lake of Gennesaret. (Matthew 8:23; 9:1; John 21:3,8) Solomon built ships for his foreign trade. (1 Kings 9:26,27; 22:48; 2 Chronicles 20:36,37)
+ Apothecaries or perfumers appear to have formed a guild or association. (Exodus 30:25,35; 2 Chronicles 16:14; Nehemiah 3:8; Ecclesiastes 7:1; 10:1) Ecclus 38:8.
+ Weavers .—The arts of spinning and weaving both wool and linen were carried on in early times, as they usually are still among the Bedouins, by women. (Exodus 35:20,26; Leviticus 19:19; 22:11; 2 Kings 23:7; Ezekiel 16:16; Proverbs 31:13,14) The loom with its beam, (1 Samuel 17:7) pin, (Judges 16:14) and shuttles (Job 7:6) was perhaps introduced later, but as early as David's time. (1 Samuel 17:7)
+ Dyeing and dressing cloth were practiced in Palestine, as were also tanning and dressing leather . (Joshua 2:15-18; 2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4; Acts 9:43)
+ Barbers . (Numbers 6:5,19; Ezekiel 5:1)
+ Tentmakers are noticed in (Acts 18:3)
+ Potters are frequently alluded to. (Jeremiah 18:2-6) + Bakers are noticed in Scripture, (Jeremiah 37:21; Hosea 7:4) and the well-known valley Tyropoeon probably derived its name from the occupation of the cheese-makers, its inhabitants. + Butchers, not Jewish, are spoken of (1 Corinthians 10:25) Shoemakers, tailors, glaziers and glass vessels painters and gold workers are mentioned in the Mishna. Chel. viii.9; xxix.3,4; xxx.1.
Handkerchief, Napkin, Apron
(Luke 19:20; John 11:44; 20:7; Acts 19:12) These terms were used in much the same manner and having much the same significance as at the present.
a place in Egypt mentioned only in (Isaiah 30:4) We think that the Chald Paraphr. is right in identifying it with Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier.
+ The "hanging" was a curtain or 'covering' to close an entrance; one was placed before the door of the tabernacle. Exodus 26:36,37; 39:38
+ The "hangings"; were used for covering, the walls of the court of the tabernacles just as tapestry is used in modern times. (Exodus 27:9; 35:17; 38:9; Numbers 3:26; 4:26)
(grace of God), one of the sons of Ulla of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:39)
(grace), one of the wives of Elkanah, and mother of Samuel.1Sam 1,2 (B.C.1141.) A hymn of thanks giving for the birth of her son is in the highest order of prophetic poetry, its resemblance to that of the Virgin Mary comp. (1 Samuel 2:1-10) with Luke 1:46-55 See also (Psalm 113:1) ... has been noticed.
(gracious), one of the cities of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:14)
+ The third in order of the children of Midian. (Genesis 25:4) + Eldest son of Reuben, (Genesis 46:9; Exodus 6:14; Numbers 26:5; 1 Chronicles 5:3) and founder of the family of the Hanochites. (Numbers 26:5)
+ Son of Nahash (2 Samuel 10:1,2; 1 Chronicles 19:1,2) king of Ammon, who dishonored the ambassadors of David, (2 Samuel 10:4) and involved the Ammonites in a disastrous war, (2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Chronicles 19:6) (B.C.1035.)
+ A man who, with the people of Zanoah, repaired the ravine gate in the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:13) (B.C.446). + The sixth son of Zalalph, who also assisted in the repair of the wall, apparently on the east side. (Nehemiah 3:30) (B.C.446.)
(two pits), a city of Issachar, mentioned next to Shunem. (Joshua 19:19) About 6 miles northeast of Lejjun, and two miles west of Solam (the ancient Shunem), stands the village of el' Afuleh, which may possibly be the representative of Haphraim.
(mountain land), (1 Chronicles 5:26) only, is either a place utterly unknown or it must be regarded as identical with Haran or Charran.
(fear), a desert station of the Israelites, (Numbers 33:24,25) its position is uncertain.
+ The third son of Terah, and therefore youngest brother of Abram. (Genesis 11:26) (B.C.1926.) Three children are ascribed to him—Lot, vs. (Genesis 11:27,31) and two daughters, viz., Milcah, who married her uncle Nahor, ver. (Genesis 11:29) and Iscah. ver. (Genesis 11:29) Haran was born in Ur of the Chaldees, and he died there while his father was still living. ver. (Genesis 11:28)
+ A Gershonite Levite in the time of David, one of the family of Shimei. (1 Chronicles 23:9)
+ A son of the great Caleb by his concubine Ephah. (1 Chronicles 2:46)
+ HARAN or Charran, (Acts 7:2,4) name of the place whither Abraham migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees, and where the descendants of his brother Nahor established themselves. Comp. (Genesis 24:10) with Genesis27:43 It is said to be in Mesopotamia, (Genesis 24:10) or more definitely in Padan-aram, ch. (Genesis 25:20) the cultivated district at the foot of the hills, a name well applying to the beautiful stretch of country which lies below Mount Masius between the Khabour and the Euphrates. Here, about midway in this district, is a small village still called Harran . It was celebrated among the Romans, under the name of Charrae, as the scene of the defeat of Crassus.
(the mountaineer), The. The destination of three of David's guard.
+ Agee, a Hararite (2 Samuel 23:11)
+ Shammah the Hararite. (2 Samuel 23:33)
+ Sharar, (2 Samuel 23:33) or Sacar, (1 Chronicles 11:35) the Hararite, was the father of Ahiam, another member of the guard.
(ass-driver), the third of the seven chamberlains or eunuchs who served King Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) (B.C.483-475.)
(Esther 7:9) the same as the preceding.
(Heb. arnebeth) occurs only in (Leviticus 11:6) and Deuteronomy 14:7 Amongst the animals disallowed as food by the Mosaic law. The hare is at this day called arnel by the Arabs in Palestine and Syria. It was erroneously thought by the ancient Jews to have chewed the cud. They were no doubt misled as in the case of the shaphfan (hyrax), by the habit these animals have of moving the jaw about.
(a plucking off), a name occurring in the genealogies of Judah as a son of Caleb and as "father of Bethgader." (1 Chronicles 2:51) only.
(thicket), The forest of, in which David took refuge, after at the instigation of the prophet Gad, he had quitted the "hold" or fastness of the cave of Adullam. (1 Samuel 22:6)
(the Lord is angry), father of Uzziel. (Nehemiah 3:8) (B.C. before 446.)
(inflammation). The sons of Harhur were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:51; Nehemiah 7:53) (B.C.623.)
+ A priest who had charge of the third division in the house of God. (1 Chronicles 24:8) (B.C.1014.)
+ Bene-Harim, probably descendants of the above, to the number of 1017, came from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:39; Nehemiah 7:42) (B.C.536.)
+ It further occurs in a list of the families of priests "who went up with Zerubbabel and Jeshua," and of those who were their descendants in the next generation. (Nehemiah 12:16) + Another family of Bene-Harim, 320 in number, came from the captivity in the same caravan. (Ezra 2:82; Nehemiah 7:35) (B.C.536.) They also appear among those who had married foreign wives, (Ezra 10:31) as well as those who sealed the covenant- (Nehemiah 10:27) (B.C.410.)
(a plucking-off). A hundred and twelve of the Bene-Hariph returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:24) The name occurs again among the "heads of the people" who sealed the covenant. ch. (Nehemiah 10:19)
That this class of persons existed in the earliest states of society is clear from (Genesis 38:15) Rahab, (Joshua 2:1) is said by the Chald. Paraphr. to have been an innkeeper; but if there were such persons, considering what we know of Canaanitish morals, (Leviticus 18:27) we may conclude that they would, if women, have been of this class. The "harlots" are classed with "publicans," as those who lay under the ban of society, in the New Testament. (Matthew 21:32)
(hill of Megiddo), (Revelation 16:16) in the Revised Version for Armageddon. The change is chiefly Har, hill, in place of Ar, city.
(panting), one of the sons of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:36)
(fear), The well of, a spring by which Gideon and his great army encamped on the morning of the day which ended in the rout of the Midianites. (Judges 7:1) and where the trial of the people by their mode of drinking apparently took place. The Ain Jalud is very suitable to the circumstances, as being at present the largest spring in the neighborhood.
the designation of two of the thirty-seven warriors of David's guard, Shammah and Elika, (2 Samuel 23:25) doubtless denied from a place named Harod.
a name occurring in the genealogical lists of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:52)
(the same as Harodite) The, the title given to Shammoth, one of the warriors of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:27)
(workmanship) "of the Gentiles" so called from the mixed races that inhabited it—a city in the north of the land of Canaan, supposed to have stood on the west coast of the lake Merom from which the Jordan issues forth in one unbroken stream. It was the residence of Sisera captain of Jabin king of Canaan, (Judges 4:2) and it was the point to which the victorious Israelites under Barak pursued the discomfited host and chariots of the second potentate of that name. (Judges 4:16)
The harp was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known throughout Asia. Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the antediluvian period. (Genesis 4:21) Josephus records that the harp had ten strings, and that it was played on with the plectrum. Sometimes it was smaller having only eight strings, and was usually played with the fingers.
(native of Hariph), The, the designation of Shephatiah, one of the Korhites who repaired to David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5) (B.C.1064.)
The word so rendered, (2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Chronicles 20:3) is probably a threshing-machine. The verb rendered "to harrow," (Job 39:10; Isaiah 28:24; Hosea 10:11) expresses apparently the breaking of the clods, and is so far analogous to our harrowing—but whether done by any such machine as we call a "harrow" is very doubtful.
(deaf). Bene-Harsha were among the families of Nethinim who came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:52; Nehemiah 7:54)
the male stag. The word denotes some member of the deer tribe either the fallow deer or the Barbary deer. The hart is reckoned among the clean animals, (12:15; 14:5; 15:22) and seems from the passages quoted, as well as from (1 Kings 4:23) to have been commonly killed for food.
(lofty), father of Aharhel, in one of the most obscure genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)
(slit-nosed) father or ancestor of Jedaiah. (Nehemiah 3:10)
(zealous), a man of Jotbah, father of Meshullemeth queen of Manasseh. (2 Kings 21:9) (B.C. before 644.)
(loved by Jehovah) one of a group of five persons among the descendants of the royal line of Judah, (1 Chronicles 3:20) apparently sons of Zerubbabel. (B.C. about 536.)
(the hated), a Benjamite, of one of the chief families in the tribe. (1 Chronicles 9:7)
(whom God regards).
+ A Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:45)
+ Another Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 9:14)
+ The fourth of the six sons of Jeduthun, (1 Chronicles 25:3) who had charge of the twelfth course. ver.19. (B.C.1014.) + One of the descendants of Hebron the son of Kohath- (1 Chronicles 26:30)
+ The son of Kemuel, who was prince of the tribe of Levi in the time of David (1 Chronicles 27:17) (B.C.1014.)
+ A Levite one of the "chiefs" of his tribe, who officiated for King Josiah at his great Passover feast. (2 Chronicles 35:9) (B.C.623).
+ A Merarite Levite who accompanied Ezra from Babylon. (Ezra 8:19)
+ One of the chiefs of the priests who formed part of the same caravan. (Ezra 8:24) (B.C.536.)
+ Ruler of half the circuit or environs of Keilah; he repaired a portion of the wall of Jerusalem under Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:17) (B.C.446.)
+ One of the Levites who sealed the covenant of reformation after the return from the captivity. (Nehemiah 10:11; 12:24) comp. Nehemiah 12:26 (B.C.446-410.)
+ Another Levite, son of Bunni. (Nehemiah 11:15)
+ A Levite, son of Mattaniah. (Nehemiah 11:22)
+ A priest of the family of Hilkiah in the days of Joiakim son of Jeshua. (Nehemiah 12:21)
(whom Jehovah regards), one of the chief of the "people" who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:25) (B.C.410.)
(whom Jehovah regards).
+ Father of Hattush. (Nehemiah 3:10)
+ A Levite who was among those who officiated at the great fast under Ezra and Nehemiah when the covenant was sealed. (Nehemiah 9:5) (B.C.410.)
(considerate judge), one of the men (probably Levites) who stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law to the people in Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C.410.)
(fat). The sons of Hashem the Gizonite are named amongst the members of David's guard in (1 Chronicles 11:34) (B.C. before 1014.)
(fatness), a station of the Israelites, mentioned (Numbers 33:29) as next before Moseroth.
+ A son of Pahath-moab, who assisted in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:11) (B.C.446.)
+ Another who assisted in the same work. (Nehemiah 3:23) + One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:23) (B.C.410.)
+ A Merarite Levite. (Nehemiah 11:15)
(intelligent), the first of a group of five men, apparently the latter half of the family of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:20)
+ Bene-Hashum, 223 in number, came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:19; 10:33; Nehemiah 7:22) (B.C. before 536.) The chief man of the family was among these who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:18) (B.C.410.) + One of the priests or Levites who stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law to the congregation. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C.410.)
(stripped), one of the families of Nethinim who returned from captivity in the first caravan (Nehemiah 7:46) Called Hasupha in (Ezra 2:43) (B.C.536.)
(very poor), the form in which the name Harhas is given in (2 Chronicles 34:22) comp.2Kin 22:14
The Bene-Hassenaah rebuilt the fish-gate in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:3) (B.C.446.)
(verily), one of the eunuchs in the court of Ahasuerus. (Esther 4:5,6,9,10) (B.C.474.)
(fearful), one of the sons of Othniel the Kenazite. (1 Chronicles 4:13)
(captive). Bene-Hatipha (i.e. sons of Hatipha) were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:54; Nehemiah 7:56) (B.C.536.)
(exploring). Bene-Hatita (i.e. sons of Hatita) were among the "porters" (i.e. the gate-keepers) who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:42; Nehemiah 7:45) (B.C.536.)
+ A descendant of the kings of Judah apparently one of the sons of Shechaniah, (1 Chronicles 3:22) in the fourth or fifth generation from Zerubbabel. A person of the same name accompanied Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem. (Ezra 8:2) In another statement Hattush is said to have returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:2)
+ Son of Hashabniah. one-of those who assisted Nehemiah in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:10) (B.C.446.)
(caverns), a province of Palestine twice mentioned by Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 47:16,17) There can be little doubt that it is identical with the well-known Greek province of Auranitis and the modern Hauran east of the Sea of Galilee, on the borders of the desert, in the tetrarchy of Philip.
+ A part of Eden through which flowed the river Pison (Araxes). It was probably the Grecian Colchis, in the northeast corner of Asia Minor, near the Caspian Sea.
+ A district in Arabia Felix, (Genesis 10:7) named from the second son of Cush; probably the district of Kualan, in the northwestern part of Yemen.
+ A son of Cush. (Genesis 10:7)
+ A son of Joktan. (Genesis 10:29)
(villages of Jair), certain villages on the east of Jordan, in Gilead or Bashan, which were taken by Jair the son of Manasseh, and called after his name. (Numbers 32:41; 3:14) In the records of Manasseh in (Joshua 13:30) and 1 Chronicles 2:23 The Havoth-jair are reckoned with other districts as making up sixty "cities." Comp. (1 Kings 4:13) There is apparently some confusion in these different statements as to what the sixty cities really consisted of. No less doubtful is the number of the Havoth-Jair. In (1 Chronicles 2:22) they are specified as twenty-three, but in (Judges 10:4) as thirty.
(Leviticus 11:16; 14:15; Job 39:26) The hawk includes various species of the Falconidae . With respect to the passage in Job (l.c.) which appears to allude to the migratory habits of hawks, it is curious to observe that of the ten or twelve lesser raptors (hawk tribe) of Palestine, nearly all are summer migrants. The kestrel remains all the year, but the others are all migrants from the south.
(Heb. chatsir), the rendering of the Authorized Version in (Proverbs 27:25) and Isaiah 15:6 Of the Hebrew term, which occurs frequently in the Old Testament, and denotes "grass" of any kind. It is quite probable that the modern Orientals do not make hay in our sense of the term; but it is certain that the ancients did mow their grass, and probably made use of the dry material. See (Psalm 37:2) We may remark that there is an express Hebrew term for "dry grass" or "hay," viz. chashash, which, in the only two places where the word occurs, (Isaiah 5:24; 33:11) is rendered "chaff" in the Authorized Version.
(whom God sees), a king of Damascus who reigned from about B.C.886 to B.C.840. He appears to have been previously a person in a high position at the court of Ben-hadad, and was sent by his master to Elisha to inquire if he would recover from the malady under which he was suffering. Elisha's answer led to the murder of Ben-hadad by his ambitious servant, who forthwith mounted the throne. (2 Kings 8:7-15) He was soon engaged in war with the kings of Judah and Israel for the possession of the city of Ramoth-gilead. Ibid. (2 Kings 8:28) Towards the close of the reign of Jehu, Hazael led the Syrians against the Israelites (about B.C.860), whom he "smote in all their coasts," (2 Kings 10:32) thus accomplishing the prophecy of Elisha. Ibid . (2 Kings 8:12) At the close of his life, having taken Gath, ibid. (2 Kings 12:17) comp. Amos 6:2 He proceeded to attack Jerusalem, (2 Chronicles 24:24) and was about to assault the city when Joash bribed him to retire. (2 Kings 12:18) Hazael appears to have died about the year B.C.840, (2 Kings 13:24) having reigned forty-six years.
(whom Jehovah sees), a man of Judah of the family of the Shilonites, or descendants of Shelah. (Nehemiah 11:5)
(court of death), the third in order of the sons of Joktan (Genesis 10:26) The name is preserved in the Arabic Hadramawt and Hadrumawl, the appellation of a province and an ancient people of southern Arabia. The capital is Satham, a very ancient city, and its chief ports are Mirbat, Zafari and Kisheem, from whence a great trade was carried on in ancient times with India and Africa.
The Hebrew term luz occurs only in (Genesis 30:37) Authorities are divided between the hazel and the almond tree as representing the luz . The latter is most probably correct.
(shade coming upon me), the sister of the sons of Etam in the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:3)
topographically, seems generally employed for the villages of people. As a proper name it appears in the Authorized Version—
+ In the plural, Hazerim and HAZEBOTH, for which see below. + In the slightly different form of Hazor.
+ In composition with other words:
+ HAZAR-ADDAR (village of Addar), a place named as one of the landmarks on the southern boundary of the land promised to Israel. (Numbers 34:4) Adar (Joshua 15:3)
+ HAZAR-ENAN (village of fountains), the place at which the northern boundary of the land promised to the children of Israel was to terminate. (Numbers 34:9,10) comp. Ezekiel 47:17; 48:1
+ HAZAB GADDAH (village of fortune), one of the towns in the southern district of Judah, (Joshua 15:27) named between Moladah and Heshmon.
+ HAZAR-SHUAL (village of jackals), a town in the southern district of Judah, lying between Hazar-gaddah and Beersheba. (Joshua 15:28; 19:3; 1 Chronicles 4:28)
+ HAZAR-SUSAH (village of horses), one of the "cities" allotted to Simeon in the extreme south of the territory of Judah. (Joshua 19:5)
(villages). The Avim, or more accurately the Avvim, are said to have lived "in the villages (Authorized Version 'Hazerim') as far as Gaza," (2:23) before their expulsion by the Caphtorim.
(villages), (Numbers 11:35; 12:16; 33:17; 1:1) a station of the Israelites in the desert, and perhaps recognizable in the Arabic Ain Hudhera, forty miles northeast of Sinai.
and Haz'azon-ta'mar (pruning of palm trees), the ancient name of Engedi. (Genesis 14:7) The name occurs in the records of the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 20:2)
(union of God), a Levite in the time of David, of the family of Shi-mei or Shimi, the younger branch of the (Gershonites. (1 Chronicles 23:9) (B.C.1014.)
(vision), a son of Nahor, by Milcah his wife. (Genesis 22:22) (B.C. about 1900.)
+ A fortified city, which on the occupation of the country was allotted to Naphtali. (Joshua 19:36) Its position was apparently between Ramah and Kedesh, ibid. (Joshua 12:19) on the high ground overlooking the Lake of Merom. There is no reason for supposing it a different place from that of which Jabin was king. (Joshua 11:1; Judges 4:2,17; 1 Samuel 12:9) It was the principal city of the whole of north Palestine. (Joshua 11:10) It was fortified by Solomon, (1 Kings 9:15) and its inhabitants were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser. (2 Kings 15:29) The most probable site of Hazor is Tell Khuraibeh .
+ One of the "cities" of Judah in the extreme south, named next in order to Kedesh. (Joshua 15:23)
+ Hazor-Hadattah = "new Hazor" another of the southern towns of Judah. (Joshua 15:25)
+ A place in which the Benjamites resided after their return from the captivity. (Nehemiah 11:33)
The Hebrews do not appear to have regarded a covering for the head as an essential article of dress. Hats were unknown. The earliest notice we have of such a thing is in connection with the sacerdotal vestments. (Exodus 28:40) The tsaniph (something like a turban) is noticed as being worn by nobles, (Job 29:14) ladies, (Isaiah 3:23) and kings, (Isaiah 62:3) while the peer was an article of holiday dress, (Isaiah 61:3) Authorized Version "beauty;" (Ezekiel 24:17,23) and was worn at weddings. (Isaiah 61:10) The ordinary head-dress of the Bedouin consists of the keffieh, a square handkerchief, generally of red and yellow cotton or cotton and silk, folded so that three of the corners hang down over the back and shoulders, leaving the face exposed, and bound round the head by a cord. It is not improbable that a similar covering was used by the Hebrews on certain occasions. The Assyrian head-dress is described in (Ezekiel 23:15) under the terms "exceeding in dyed attire." The word rendered "hats" in (Daniel 3:21) properly applies to a cloak.
One way of baking much practiced in the East is to place the dough on an iron plate, either laid on or supported on legs above the vessel sunk in the ground, which forms the oven. The cakes baked "on the hearth" (Genesis 18:6) were probably baked in the existing Bedouin manner, on hot stones covered with ashes. The "hearth" of King Jehoiakim's winter palace, (Jeremiah 36:23) was possibly a pan or brazier of charcoal. From this we see that the significance of the Hebrew words translated hearth is not the same as with us.
(Jeremiah 17:6) was some species of juniper, probably the savin, a dwarf, stunted juniper which grows in the most sterile parts of the desert.
There are four Hebrew words thus rendered in the Old Testament which we may briefly notice.
+ Raki'a, Authorized Version, firmament. [Firmament] + Shamayim . This is the word used in the expression "the heaven and the earth," or "the upper and lower regions." (Genesis 1:1)
+ Marom, used for heaven in (Psalm 18:16; Isaiah 24:18; Jeremiah 25:30). Properly speaking it means a mountain as in (Psalm 102:19; Ezekiel 17:23)
+ Shechakim, "expanses," with reference to the extent of heaven. (33:26; Job 35:5) St. Paul's expression "third heaven," (2 Corinthians 12:2) had led to much conjecture. Grotius said that the Jews divided the heaven into three parts, viz., + The air or atmosphere, where clouds gather;
+ The firmament, in which the sun, moon and stars are fixed; + The upper heaven, the abode of God and his angels, the invisible realm of holiness and happiness the home of the children of God.
+ Grandson of the patriarch Asher, (Genesis 46:17; Numbers 26:45; 1 Chronicles 7:31) from whom came the Heberites. (Numbers 26:45)
+ The patriarch Eber. (Luke 3:35) [Eber]
+ The father of Socho; a Judite. (1 Chronicles 4:18) + A Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:17)
+ A Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:22)
+ A Gadite. (1 Chronicles 5:13)
+ The husband of Jael, who slew Sisera by driving a nail into his temple. (Judges 4:21,22)
This word first occurs as given to Abram by the Canaanites, (Genesis 4:13) because he had crossed the Euphrates. The name is also derived from Eber, "beyond, on the other side," Abraham and his posterity being called Hebrews in order to express a distinction between the races east and west of the Euphrates. It may also be derived from Heber, one of the ancestors of Abraham. (Genesis 10:24) The term Israelite was used by the Jews of themselves among themselves; the term Hebrew was the name by which they were known to foreigners. The latter was accepted by the Jews in their external relations; and after the general substitution of the word Jew, it still found a place in that marked and special feature of national contradistinction, the language.
The books of the Old Testament are written almost entirely in the Hebrew language. It is a branch of the Shemitic language, one of the three great divisions into which all languages have been reduced. It is one of the earliest of known languages, and some suppose that it was the original language of man.
Hebrews, Epistle To The
+ The author—There has been a wide difference of opinion respecting the authorship of this epistle. For many years Paul was considered the author; others think it may have been Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos. Much of the theology and the language are similar to Paul's, but the authorship of the epistle ia still disputed.
+ To whom written .—The epistle was probably addressed to the Jews in Jerusalem and Palestine. The argument of the epistle is such as could he used with most effect to a church consisting exclusively of Jews by birth, personally familiar with and attached to the temple service.
+ Date.—It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D.70, probably about A.D.62-64.
+ Place .—It was probably written in Italy, while Paul was a prisoner at Rome.
+ Contents .—With respect to the scope of the epistle, it should be recollected that while the numerous Christian churches scattered throughout Judea, (Acts 9:31; Galatians 1:22) were continually exposed to persecution from the Jews, (1 Thessalonians 2:14) there was in Jerusalem one additional weapon in the hands of the predominant oppressors of the Christians. The magnificent national temple might be put against the Hebrew Christian; and even if this affliction were not often laid upon him, yet there was a secret burden which he bore within him, the knowledge that the end of all the beauty and awfulness of Zion was rapidly approaching. The writer of this epistle meets the Hebrew Christians on their own ground, showing that the new faith gave them Christ the Son of God, more prevailing than the high priest as an intercessor; that his Sabbath awaited them, his covenant, his atonement, his city heavenly not made with hands. Having him, believe in him with all your heart, with a faith in the unseen future strong as that of the saints of old, patient under present and prepared for coming woe, full of energy and hope and holiness and love. Such was the teaching of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
+ The third son of Kohath, who was the second son of Levi. (Exodus 6:18; Numbers 3:19; 1 Chronicles 6:2,18; 23:12) He was the founder of a family of Hebronites, (Numbers 3:27; 26:58; 1 Chronicles 26:23,30,31), or Bene-Hebron. (1 Chronicles 15:9; 23:19)
+ A city of Judah, (Joshua 15:54) situated among the mountains, (Joshua 20:7) 20 Roman miles south of Jerusalem, and the same distance north of Beersheba. Hebron is one of the most ancient cities in the world still existing; and in this respect it is the rival of Damascus. It was a well-known town when Abraham entered Canaan, 3800 years ago. (Genesis 13:18) Its original name was Kirjath-arba, (Judges 1:10) "the city of Arba;" so called from Arba the father of Anak. (Joshua 15:13,14; 21:13) Sarah died at Hebron; and Abraham then bought from Ephron the Hittite the field and cave of Machpelah, to serve as a family tomb (Genesis 23:2-20) The cave is still there, and the massive walls of the Haram or mosque, within which it lies, form the most remarkable object in the whole city. Abraham is called by Mohammedans el-Khulil, "the Friend," i.e. of God, and this is the modern name of Hebron. Hebron now contains about 5000 inhabitants, of whom some fifty families are Jews. It is picturesquely situated in a narrow valley, surrounded by rocky hills. The valley runs from north to south; and the main quarter of the town, surmounted by the lofty walls of the venerable Haram, lies partly on the eastern slope. (Genesis 37:14) comp. Genesis23:19 About a mile from the town, up the valley, is one of the largest oak trees in Palestine. This, say some, is the very tree beneath which Abraham pitched his tent, and it still bears the name of the patriarch. + One of the towns in the territory of Asher, (Joshua 19:28) probably Ebdon or Abdom.
A family of Kohathite Levites, descendants of Hebron the son of Kohath. (Numbers 3:27; 26:58; 1 Chronicles 26:23)
The Hebrew words thus rendered denote simply that which surrounds or encloses, whether it be a stone wall, geder, (Proverbs 24:31; Ezekiel 42:10) or a fence of other materials. The stone walls which surround the sheepfolds of modern Palestine are frequently crowned with sharp thorns.
(eunuch), one of the eunuchs of the court of Ahasuerus. (Esther 2:8,15) (B.C.474.)
another form of the preceding (Esther 2:3)
(1 Samuel 6:7-12; Job 21:10; Isaiah 7:21) The heifer or young cow was not commonly used for ploughing, but only for treading out the corn. (Hosea 10:11) but see Judges 14:18 When it ran about without any headstall, (26:4) hence the expression an "unbroken heifer," (Hosea 4:16) Authorized Version "backsliding" to which Israel is compared.
The Hebrew institutions relative to inheritance were of a very simple character. Under the patriarchal system the property was divided among the sons of the legitimate wives, (Genesis 21:10; 24:36; 25:5) a larger portion being assigned to one, generally the eldest, on whom devolved the duty of maintaining the females of the family. The sons of concubines were portioned off with presents. (Genesis 25:6) At a later period the exclusion of the sons of concubines was rigidly enforced. (Judges 11:1) ff. Daughters had no share in the patrimony, (Genesis 21:14) but received a marriage portion. The Mosaic law regulated the succession to real property thus: it has to be divided among the sons, the eldest receiving a double portion, (21:17) the others equal shares; if there were no sons, it went to the daughters, (Numbers 27:8) on the condition that they did not marry out of their own tribe, (Numbers 36:6) ff.; otherwise the patrimony was forfeited. If there were no daughters it went to the brother of the deceased; if no brother, to the paternal uncle; and, failing these to the next of kin. (Numbers 27:9-11)
(rust), one of the two wives of Ashur, father of Tekoa. (1 Chronicles 4:5)
(stronghold), a place east of the Jordan but west of the Euphrates at which the Syrians were collected by Hadarezer, and where David met and defeated them. (2 Samuel 10:16,17)
(fertile), a town of Asher, probably on the plain of Phoenicia not far from Sidon. (Judges 1:31)
(fertile), a place mentioned only in (Ezekiel 27:18) Geographers have hitherto represented Helbon as identical with the city of Aleppo, called Haleb by the Arabs; but there are strong reasons against this, and the ancient city must be identified with a village within a few miles of Damascus still bearing the ancient name Helbon, and still celebrated as producing the finest grapes in the country.
+ The twelfth captain of the monthly courses for the temple service. (1 Chronicles 27:15) (B.C.1014.)
+ An Israelite who seems to have returned from the captivity. (Zechariah 6:10) (B.C.520.)
(milk), or He'led (transient) son of Baanah the Netophathite, one of the heroes of King David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:29; 1 Chronicles 11:30)
(portion), one of the descendants of Manasseh, and second son of Gilead, (Numbers 26:30) and founder of the Helekites. (B.C.1445.)
+ A descendant of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:35)
+ A man mentioned only in (Zechariah 6:14) Apparently the same as Heldai.
(exchange), the place from which the boundary of the tribe of Naphtali started. (Joshua 19:33)
+ One of "the thirty" of David's guard, (2 Samuel 23:26; 1 Chronicles 11:27) an Ephraimite, and captain of the seventh monthly course. (1 Chronicles 27:10) (B.C.1016.)
+ A man of Judah, son of Azariah. (1 Chronicles 2:39)
(portion), the town named as the starting-point for the boundary of the tribe of Asher, (Joshua 19:25) and allotted with its "suburbs" to the Gershonite Levites. ch. (Joshua 21:31) Perhaps Yerka, seven miles from Acre.
(ascending), the father of Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary, (Luke 13:23) perhaps the grandfather of Mary herself. [See Genealogy Of Jesus Christ OF JESUS CHRIST]
(field of rock), a smooth piece of ground, apparently close to the pool of Gibeon, where the combat took place between the two parties of Joab's men and Abner's men which ended in the death of the whole of the combatants, and brought on a general battle. (2 Samuel 2:16)
In the Old Testament this is the word generally and unfortunately used by our translators to render the Hebrew Sheol . It really means the place of the dead, the unseen world, without deciding whether it be the place of misery or of happiness. It is clear that in many passages of the Old Testament Sheol can only mean "the grave," and is rendered in the Authorized Version; see, for example, (Genesis 37:35; 42:38; 1 Samuel 2:6; Job 14:13) In other passages, however, it seems to Involve a notion of punishment, and is therefore rendered in the Authorized Version by the word "hell." But in many cases this translation misleads the reader. In the New Testament "hell" is the translation of two words, Hades and Gehenna . The word Hades, like Sheol sometimes means merely "the grave," (Acts 2:31; 1 Corinthians 15:55; Revelation 20:13) or in general "the unseen world." It is in this sense that the creeds say of our Lord, "He went down into hell," meaning the state of the dead in general, without any restriction of happiness or misery. Elsewhere in the New Testament Hades is used of a place of torment, (Matthew 11:23; Luke 16:23; 2 Peter 2:4) etc.; consequently it has been the prevalent, almost the universal, notion that Hades is an intermediate state between death and resurrection, divided into two parts one the abode of the blest and the other of the lost. It is used eleven times in the New Testament, and only once translated "grave." (1 Corinthians 15:55) The word most frequently used (occurring twelve times) in the New Testament for the place of future punishment is Gehenna or Gehenna of fire . This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their destruction. [See Hinnom]
(Grecian), the term applied in the New Testament to Greek-speaking or "Grecian" Jews. The Hellenists as a body included not only the proselytes of Greek (or foreign) parentage, but also those. Jews who, by settling in foreign countries, had adopted the prevalent form of the current Greek civilization, and with it the use of the common Greek dialect. (Acts 6:1; 9:29)
(strong), father of Eliab, of the tribe of Zebulun. (Numbers 1:9; 2:7; 7:24,29; 10:16) (B.C.1491.)
Hem Of Garment
The importance which the later Jews, especially the Pharisees, (Matthew 23:5) attached to the hem or fringe of their garments was founded upon the regulation in (Numbers 15:38,39) which gave a symbolical meaning to it. [See Dress]
(exterminating). Hori and Hemam were sons of Lotan, the eldest son of Seir. (Genesis 36:22)
+ Son of Zerah. (1 Chronicles 2:6; 1 Kings 4:31)
+ Son of Joel and grandson of Samuel the prophet, a Kohathite. He is called "the singer," rather the musician, (1 Chronicles 6:33) and was the first of the three Levites to whom was committed the vocal and instrumental music of the temple service in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 15:16-22) The 88th Psalm is ascribed to him. (B.C.1014.)
(heat), a person or place named in the genealogical lists of Judah, as the origin of the Kenites, and the "father" of the house of Rechab. (1 Chronicles 2:55) (B.C.1445.)
(pleasant), the eldest son of Dishon, son of Anah the Horite. (Genesis 36:26) [Amram, 2] (B.C. about 1500.)
the common ground or dwarf hemlock, a bitter, poisonous plant. The Hebrew rosh is rendered "hemlock" in two passages, (Hosea 10:4; Amos 6:12) but elsewhere "gall." [Gall] (It is possible that the plant is rather the poppy than an hemlock.—Cook.)
The hen is nowhere noticed in the Bible except in (Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34) That a bird so common in Palestine should receive such slight notice is certainly peculiar.
(rest), probably a son of Zephaniah, and apparently the same who is called Josiah in (Zechariah 6:10)
(troubling), a city the Assyrian kings had reduced shortly before the time of Sennacherib. (2 Kings 19:13; Isaiah 37:13) At no great distance from Sippara (now Mosaib) is an ancient town called And or Anah, which may be the same as Hena. It is 20 miles from Babylon on the Euphrates.
(grace of Hadad), the head of a family of the Levites who took a prominent part in the rebuilding of the temple. (Ezra 3:9)
+ Enoch, 2.((1 Chronicles 1:3)
+ Hanoch, 1.((1 Chronicles 1:33)
a place in ancient Canaan which occurs in the lists of conquered kings. (Joshua 12:17) It was on the west of Jordan. Comp. (Joshua 12:7) and 1Kin 4:10
+ The youngest of the sons of Gilead, (Numbers 26:32) and head of the family of the Hepherites. (B.C. before 1450.) + Son of Ashur, the "father of Tekoa." (1 Chronicles 4:6) (B.C. about 1445.)
+ The Mecherathite, one of the heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:36) (B.C.1046.)
the family of Hepher the son of Gilead. (Numbers 26:32)
+ A name signifying "my delight in her," which is to be borne by the restored Jerusalem. (Isaiah 62:4)
+ The queen of King Hezekiah and the mother of Manasseh. (2 Kings 21:1) (B.C.709-696.)
one who makes public proclamation. The only notice of this officer in the Old Testament occurs in (Daniel 3:4) The term "herald" might be substituted for "preacher" in (1 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:11; 2 Peter 2:5)
(a collection of cattle), Herdsmen. The herd was greatly regarded in both the patriarchal and the Mosaic period. The ox was the most precious stock next to horse and mule. The herd yielded the most esteemed sacrifice, (Numbers 7:3; Psalm 69:31; Isaiah 66:3) also flesh meat, and milk, chiefly converted probably, into butter and cheese. (32:14; 2 Samuel 17:29) The agricultural and general usefulness of the ox in ploughing, threshing, and as a beast of burden, (1 Chronicles 12:40; Isaiah 46:1) made a slaughtering of him seem wasteful. Herdsmen, etc., in Egypt were a low, perhaps the lowest, caste; but of the abundance of cattle in Egypt, and of the care there bestowed on them, there is no doubt. (Genesis 47:6,17; Exodus 9:4,20) So the plague of hail was sent to smite especially the cattle, (Psalm 78:48) the firstborn of which also were smitten. (Exodus 12:29) The Israelites departing stipulated for, (Exodus 10:26) and took "much cattle" with them. ch. (Exodus 12:38) Cattle formed thus one of the traditions of the Israelitish nation in its greatest period, and became almost a part of that greatness. The occupation of herdsman was honorable in early times. (Genesis 47:6; 1 Samuel 11:5; 1 Chronicles 27:29; 28:1) Saul himself resumed it in the interval of his cares as king, also Doeg was certainly high in his confidence (1 Samuel 21:7) Pharaoh made some of Joseph's brethren "rulers over his cattle." David's herd-masters were among his chief officers of state. The prophet Amos at first followed this occupation.
(the sun), (Judges 1:35) a city of Dan, in Mount Ephraim, near Ajalon; possibly identical with Mount Jearim (Ir-shemesh, city of the gun).
(artificer), a Levite attached to the tabernacle (1 Chronicles 9:15) (B.C.536.)
(Mercury), the name of a Christian resident at Rome to whom St. Paul sends greetings in his Epistle to the Romans. (Romans 16:14) (A.D.55.) Irenaeus, Tertullian and Origen agree in attributing to him the work called The shepherd . It was never received into the canon, but yet was generally cited with respect only second to that which was paid to the authoritative books of the New Testament.
(Mercury), a Christian mentioned in (Romans 16:14) According to tradition he was one of the seventy disciples, and afterward bishop of Dalmatia. (A.D.55.)
a person mentioned by St. Paul in the latest of all his epistles, (2 Timothy 1:15) when all in Asia had turned away from him. (A.D.64.)
(a peak, summit), a mountain on the northeastern border of Palestine, (3:8; Joshua 12:1) over against Lebanon, (Joshua 11:17) adjoining the plateau of Bashan. (1 Chronicles 5:23) It stands at the southern end, and is the culminating point of the anti-Libanus range; it towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or Assyria. At the present day it is called Jebel esh-Sheikh, "the chief mountain," and Jebel eth-Thelj, "snowy mountain." When the whole country is parched with the summer sun, white lines of snow streak the head of Hermon. This mountain was the great landmark of the Israelites. It was associated with their northern border almost as intimately as the sea was with the western. Hermon has three summits, situated like the angles of a triangle, and about a quarter of a mile from each other. In two passages of Scripture this mountain is called Baal-hermon, (Judges 3:3; 1 Chronicles 5:23) possibly because Baal was there worshipped. (It is more than probable that some part of Hermon was the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands near Caesarea Philippi, where we know Christ was just before that event—ED.) The height of Hermon has never been measured, though it has often been estimated. It may safely be reckoned at 10,000 feet.
Properly "the Hermons," with reference to the three summits of Mount Hermon. (Psalm 42:6) (Psal 42:7).
(hero-like). This family though of Idumean origin and thus alien by race, was Jewish in faith. I. HEROD THE GREAT was the second son of Antipater, an Idumean, who was appointed procurator of Judea by Julius Caesar, B.C.47. Immediately after his father's elevation when only fifteen years old, he received the government of Galilee and shortly afterward that of Coele-Syria. Though Josephus says he was 15 years old at this time, it is generally conceded that there must be some mistake, as he lived to be 69 or 70 years old, and died B.C.4; hence he must have been 25 years old at this time.—ED.) In B.C.41 he was appointed by Antony tetrarch of Judea. Forced to abandon Judea the following year, he fled to Rome, and received the appointment of king of Judea. In the course of a few years, by the help of the Romans he took Jerusalem (B.C.37), and completely established his authority throughout his dominions. The terrible acts of bloodshed which Herod perpetrated in his own family were accompanied by others among his subjects equally terrible, from the number who fell victims to them. According to the well-known story) he ordered the nobles whom he had called to him in his last moment to be executed immediately after his decease, that so at least his death might be attended by universal mourning. It was at the time of his fatal illness that he must have caused the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem. (Matthew 2:16-18) He adorned Jerusalem with many splendid monuments of his taste and magnificence. The temple, which he built with scrupulous care, was the greatest of these works. The restoration was begun B.C.20, and the temple itself was completed in a year and a half. But fresh additions were constantly made in succeeding years, so that it was said that the temple was "built in forty and six years," (John 2:20) the work continued long after Herod's death. (Herod died of a terrible disease at Jericho, in April, B.C.4, at the age of 69, after a long reign of 37 years.—ED.) II. HEROD Antipas, Antipas was the son of Herod the Great by Malthake, a Samaritan. He first married a daughter of Aretas, "king of Arabia Petraea," but afterward Herodias, the wife of his half-brother, Herod Philip. Aretas, indignant at the insult offered to his daughter, found a pretext for invading the territory of Herod, and defeated him with great loss. This defeat, according to the famous passage in Josephus, was attributed by many to the murder of John the Baptist, which had been committed by Antipas shortly before, under the influence of Herodias. (Matthew 14:4) ff.; Mark 6:17 ff.; Luke 3:19 At a later time the ambition of Herodias proved the cause of her husband's ruin. She urged him to go to Rome to gain the title of king, cf. (Mark 6:14) but he was opposed at the court of Caligula by the emissaries of Agrippa, and condemned to perpetual banishment at Lugdunum, A.D.39. Herodias voluntarily shared his punishment, and he died in exile. Pilate took occasion from our Lord's residence in Galilee to bend him for examination, (Luke 23:6) ff., to Herod Antipas, who came up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover. The city of Tiberias, which Antipas founded and named in honor of the emperor, was the most conspicuous monument of his long reign. III. HEROD PHILIP I.((Philip,) (Mark 6:17) was the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne. He married Herodias the sister of Agrippa I by whom he had a daughter, Salome. He was excluded from all share in his father's possessions in consequence of his mother's treachery, and lived afterward in a private station. IV. HEROD PHILIP II. was the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra. He received as his own government Batanea Trachonitis, Auramtis (Gaulanitis), and some parts about Jamnia, with the title of tetrarch. Luke 3:1. He built a new city on the site of Paneas, near the sources of the Jordan, which be called Caesarea Philippi, (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27) and raised Bethsaida to the rank of a city under the title of Julias and died there A.D.34. He married Salome, the daughter of Herod Philip I. and Herodias. V. HEROD AGRIPPA I. was the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was brought up at Rome, and was thrown into prison by Tiberius, where he remained till the accession of Caligula, who made him king, first of the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias; afterward the dominions of Antipas were added, and finally Judea and Samaria. Unlike his predessors, Agrippa was a strict observer of the law, and he sought with success the favor of the Jews. It is probable that it was with this view he put to death James the son of Zebedee, and further imprisoned Peter. (Acts 12:1) ff. But his sudden death interrupted his ambitious projects. (Acts 12:21,23) VI. HEROD AGRIPPA II--- was the son of Herod Agrippa I. In A.D.62 the emperor gave him the tetrarches formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king. (Acts 25:13) The relation in which he stood to his sister Berenice, (Acts 25:13) was the cause of grave suspicion. It was before him that Paul was tried. (Acts 26:28)
(from Herod). (Matthew 22:15) ff.; Mark 12:13 ff. Canon Cook describes these persons as "that party among the Jews who were supporters of the Herodian family as the last hope of retaining for the Jews a fragment of national government, as distinguished from absolute dependence upon Rome as a province of the empire. Supporters of the family of Herod, who held their dominions by the grant of the Roman emperor, would be in favor of paying tribute to the supreme power. (Matthew 22:16)
daughter of Aristobulus, one of the sons of Mariamne and Herod the Great, and consequently sister of Agrippa I. She first married Herod Philip I.; then she eloped from him to marry Herod Antipas her step-uncle. The head of John the Baptist was granted at the request of Herodias. (Matthew 14:8-11; Mark 6:24-28) (A.D.29.) She accompanied Antipas into exile to Lugdunum
a relative of St. Paul, to whom he sends his salutation amongst the Christians of the Roman church. (Romans 16:11) (A.D.55.)
(Leviticus 11:19; 14:18) a common large, wading, unclean bird. Nearly all of the species known in English ornithology are found in the vicinity of Palestine. Canon Cook and others think the bird intended is the plover (Charadrius aedicnemus), a greedy, thick kneed, high-flying migratory bird, very common in the East, on the banks of rivers and shores of lakes.—ED.
(kindness), the son of Hesed or Ben-Chesed, was commissary for Solomon. (1 Kings 4:10) (B.C. about 995.)
(stronghold), the capital city of Sihon king of the Amorites. (Numbers 21:26) It stood on the western border of the high plain—Mishor, (Joshua 13:17)—and on the boundary line between the tribes of Reuben and Gad. The ruins of Hesban, 20 miles east of the Jordan, on the parallel of the northern end of the Dead Sea mark the site, as they bear the name; of the ancient Heshbon. There are many cisterns among the ruins. Comp. (Song of Solomon 7:4)
(rich soil), a place named, with others, as lying in the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 15:27)
(enclosed), the son of Reuben, (Numbers 26:6) and ancestor of the Hezronites. (B.C. about 1700.)
(terror), the forefather of the nation of the Hittites. In the genealogical tables of (Genesis 10:15) and 1 Chronicles 1:13 Heth is a son of Canaan. (Genesis 24:3,4; 28:1,2)
(hiding-place), the name of a place on the northern border of Palestine. (Ezekiel 47:15; 48:1) In all probability the "way of Hethlon" is the pass at the northern end of Lebanon, and is thus identical with "the entrance of Hamath" in (Numbers 34:8) etc.
(strong), a Benjamite, one of the Bene-Elpaal, a descendant of Shaaraim. (1 Chronicles 8:17) (B.C.598.)
(the might of Jehovah).
+ Twelfth king of Judah, son of the apostate Ahaz and Abi or Abijah, ascended the throne at the age of 25, B.C.726. Hezekiah was one of the three most perfect kings of Judah. (2 Kings 18:5) Ecclus.49:4. His first act was to purge and repair and reopen with splendid sacrifices and perfect ceremonial the temple. He also destroyed a brazen serpent, said to have been the one used by Moses in the miraculous healing of the Israelites, (Numbers 21:9) which had become an object of adoration. When the kingdom of Israel had fallen, Hezekiah invited the scattered inhabitants to a peculiar passover, which was continued for the unprecedented period of fourteen days. (2 Chronicles 29:30,31) At the head of a repentant and united people, Hezekiah ventured to assume the aggressive against the Philistines and in a series of victories not only rewon the cities which his father had lost, (2 Chronicles 28:18) but even dispossessed them of their own cities except Gaza, (2 Kings 18:8) and Gath. He refused to acknowledge the supremacy of Assyria. (2 Kings 18:7) Instant war was imminent and Hezekiah used every available means to strengthen himself. (2 Kings 20:20) It was probably at this dangerous crisis in his kingdom that we find him sick and sending for Isaiah, who prophesies death as the result. (2 Kings 20:1) Hezekiah's prayer for longer life is heard. The prophet had hardly left the palace when he was ordered to return and promise the king immediate recovery and fifteen years more of life. (2 Kings 20:4) An embassy coming from Babylon ostensibly to compliment Hezekiah on his
convalescence, but really to form an alliance between the two powers, is favorably received by the king, who shows them the treasures which he had accumulated. For this Isaiah foretells the punishment that shall befall his house. (2 Kings 20:17) The two invasions of Sennacherib occupy the greater part of the scripture records concerning the reign of Hezekiah. The first of these took place in the third year of Sennacherib, B.C.702, and occupies only three verses. (2 Kings 18:13-16) Respecting the commencement of the second invasion we have full details in (2 Kings 18:17) seq.; 2 Chronicles 32:9 seq.; Isaiah 36:1 ... Sennacherib sent against Jerusalem an army under two officers and his cupbearer, the orator Rabshakeh, with a blasphemous and insulting summons to surrender; but Isaiah assures the king he need not fear, promising to disperse the enemy. (2 Kings 19:6,7) Accordingly that night "the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand." Hezekiah only lived to enjoy for about one year more his well-earned peace and glory. He slept with his fathers after a reign of twenty-nine years, in the 56th year of his age, B.C.697.
+ Son of Neariah, one of the descendants of the royal family of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:23)
+ The same name, though rendered in the Authorized Version Hizkiah, is found in (Zephaniah 1:1)
+ Ater of Hezekiah. [Ater]
(vision), a king of Aram (Syria), father of Tabrimon and grandfather of Ben-hadad I.((1 Kings 15:18) He is probably identical with Rezon, the contemporary of Solomon, in (1 Kings 11:23) (B.C. before 928.)
+ A priest in the time of David, leader of the seventeenth monthly course in the service. (1 Chronicles 24:15) (B.C.1014.)
+ One of the heads of the people (lay-men) who sealed the solemn covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:20) (B.C.410.)
(enclosed), one of the thirty heroes of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:35) (B.C.1046.) In the parallel list, (1 Chronicles 11:37) the name appears as HEZRO.
(surrounded by a wall).
+ A son of Reuben. (Genesis 46:9; Exodus 6:14)
+ A son of Pharez. (Genesis 46:12; Ruth 4:18)
(descendants of Hezron), The.
+ Descendants of Hezron the son of Reuben. (Numbers 26:6) + A branch of the tribe of Judah, descendants of Hezron the son of Pharez. (Numbers 26:21)
(for the rejoicing of Jehovah), one of the thirty-seven heroes of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:30) (B.C.1046.)
(rapid), one of the rivers of Eden, the river which "goeth eastward to Assyria," (Genesis 2:14) and which Daniel calls "the great river," (Daniel 10:4) seems to have been rightly identified by the LXX. with the Tigris. Dekel is clearly an equivalent of Digla or Dighath, a name borne by the Tigris in all ages. The name now in use among the inhabitants of Mesopotamia is Dijleh .
(God liveth), a native of Bethel, who rebuilt Jericho in the reign of Ahab, (1 Kings 16:34) (B.C. after 915), and in whom was fulfilled the curse pronounced by Joshua, (Joshua 6:26) five hundred years before.
(holy city), a city of Phrygia, situated above the junction of the rivers Lycus and Maeander, near Colossae and Laodicea mentioned only in (Colossians 4:13) as the seat of a church probably founded by Epaphras.
(meditation), a word which occurs three times in the book of Psalms— (Psalm 9:16; 19:14; 92:3) (margin). The word has two meanings, one of a general character, implying thought; reflection, and another, in (Psalm 9:16) and Psal 92:3 Of a technical nature, the precise meaning of which cannot at this distance of time be determined. (Canon Cook says that it probably means an interlude giving musical expression to the feelings suggested by the preceding words.—ED.)
High Places6813 Priest
The first distinct separation of Aaron to the office of the priesthood, which previously belonged to the first-born was that recorded (Exodus 28:1) ... We find from the very first the following characteristic attributes of Aaron and the high priests his successors, as distinguished from the other priests: Aaron alone was anointed, (Leviticus 8:12) whence one of the distinctive epithets of the high priest was "the anointed priest." (Leviticus 4:3,5,16; 21:10) see (Numbers 35:25) The anointing of the sons of Aaron, i.e. the common priests seems to have been confined to sprinkling their garments with the anointing oil. (Exodus 29:21; 28:41) etc. The high priest had a peculiar dress, which passed to his successor at his death. This dress consisted of eight parts: (a) The breastplate, or, as it is further named, vs. (Exodus 28:15,29,30) the breastplate of judgment. The breastplate was originally two spans long and one span broad, but when doubled it was square, the shape in which it was worn. On it were the twelve precious stones, set in four rows, three in a row, thus corresponding to the twelve tribes—each stone having the name of one of the children of Israel engraved upon it. (b) The ephod . This consisted of two parts, of which one covered the back and the other the front, i.e. the breast and upper part of the body. These parts were clasped together on the shoulder with two large onyx stones, each having engraved on it six of the names of the tribes of Israel. They were further united by a "curious girdle" of gold blue purple, scarlet and fine twined linen round the waist. [Ephod; Girdle] (C) The robe of the ephod. This was of inferior material to the ephod itself being all of blue, ver.31, which implied its being only of "woven work." ch. (Exodus 39:22) It was worn immediately under the ephod, and was longer than it. The skirt of this robe had a remarkable trimming of pomegranates in blue, red and crimson, with a bell of gold between each pomegranate alternately. The bells were to give a sound when the high priest went in and came out of the holy place. (d) The mitre or upper turbin, with its gold plate, engraved with "Holiness to the Lord," fastened to it by a ribbon of blue. (e) The broidered coat was a tunic or long skirt of linen with a tessellated or diaper pattern, like the setting of stone. (f) The girdle, also of linen, was wound round the body several times from the breast downward, and the ends hung down to the ankles. (g) The breeches or drawers, of linen, covered the loins and thighs; and (h) The bonnet was a turban of linen, partially covering the head, but not in the form of a cone like that of the high priest when the mitre was added to it. These last four were common to all priests. The high priest alone was permitted to enter the holy of holies, which he did once a year, on the great day of atonement, when he sprinkled the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and burnt incense within the veil (Leviticus 16:1) ... The manslayer might not leave the city of refuge during the lifetime of the existing high priest. It was also forbidden to the high priest to follow a funeral, or rend his clothes for the dead. It does not appear by whose authority the high priests were appointed to their office before there were kings of Israel. After this the office seems to have been used for political rather than religious purposes. Though at first chosen for life, we find that Solomon deposed Abiathar, (1 Kings 2:35) and that Herod appointed a number of high priests, which may account for there being at least two living in Christ's time, Annas and Caiaphas. (Luke 3:2) The usual are for entering upon the functions of the priesthood, according to (2 Chronicles 31:17) is considered to have been 20 years, though a priest or high priest was not actually incapacitated if he had attained to puberty. Again, according to (Leviticus 21:17-21) no one that had a blemish could officiate at the altar. The theological view of the high priesthood does not fall within the scope of this work. It must suffice therefore to indicate that such a view would embrace the consideration of the office, dress, functions and ministrations of the high priest considered as typical of the priesthood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and as setting forth under shadows the truths which are openly taught under the gospel. This had been done to a great extent in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It would also embrace all the moral and spiritual teaching supposed to be intended by such symbols.
Though during the sway of the Romans over Palestine they made a few substantial roads for their carts and chariots, yet for the most of the time, as today, the Jews had nothing such as we call roads, but only footpaths through which animals walk in single file. These are never cared for, no repairs are made or obstacles removed. This fact brings into striking prominence the figure of repairing a highway for the return Of the captives, or the coming of the great King. On special occasions kings had roads prepared for the progress of their armies, or their own going from place to place.—ED.
(place of caves), the name of city of Judah allotted with its suburbs to the priests. (1 Chronicles 6:58)
(God is my portion)
+ Father of Eliakim. (2 Kings 18:37; Isaiah 22:20; 36:22) [Eliakim]
+ High priest in the reign of Josiah. (2 Kings 22:4) seq.2Chr 34:9 Seq.; 1:Esd.1:8. (B.C.623.) His high priesthood was rendered particularly illustrious by the great reformation effected under it by King Josiah, by the solemn Passover kept at Jerusalem in the 18th year of that king's reign, and above all by the discovery which he made of the book of the law of Moses in the temple.
+ A Merarite Levite, son of Amzi (1 Chronicles 6:45) hebr.30. + Another Merarite Levite, second son of Hosah. (1 Chronicles 26:11)
+ One of those who stood on the right hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people; doubtless a Levite, and probably a priest. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C 410.)
+ A priest of Anathoth, father of the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 1:1) (B.C. before 628.)
+ Father of Gemariah, who was one of Zedekiah's envoys to Babylon. (Jeremiah 29:3) (B.C. long before 587.)
(praise), a native of Pirathon in Mount Ephraim, father of Abdon, one of the judges of Israel. (Judges 12:13,15)
From the Hebrew Gibeah, meaning a curved round hill. But our translators have also employed the same English word for the very different term har, which has a much more extended sense than gibeah, meaning a whole district. For instance, in (Exodus 24:4) the "hill" is the same which is elsewhere in the same chapter, vs. (Exodus 24:12,13,18) etc., and book consistently and accurately rendered "mount" and "mountain." The "country of the hills," in (1:7; Joshua 9:1; 10:40; 11:16) is the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim, which is correctly called "the mountain" in the earliest descriptions of Palestine, (Numbers 13:29) and in many subsequent passages.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
the female of the common stag or Cervus elaphus . It is frequently noticed in the poetical parts of Scripture as emblematic of activity, (Genesis 49:21; Psalm 18:33) gentleness, (Proverbs 5:19) feminine modesty, (Song of Solomon 2:7; 3:5) earnest longing, (Psalm 42:1) and maternal affection. (Jeremiah 14:5) Its shyness and remoteness from the haunts of men are also alluded to, (Job 39:1) and its timidity, causing it to cast its young at the sound of thunder. (Psalm 29:9)
Both ancient Egyptian and modern Oriental doors were and are hung by means of pivots turning in sockets on both the upper and lower sides. (1 Kings 7:50) In Syria, and especially the Hauran, there are many ancient doors consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece, inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house. The allusion in (Proverbs 26:14) is thus clearly explained.
(lamentation), Valley of, otherwise called "the valley of the son" or "children of Hinnom," a deep and narrow ravine, with steep, rocky sides, to the south and west of Jerusalem, separating Mount Zion to the north from the "hill of evil counsel," and the sloping rocky plateau of the "plain of Rephaim" to the south. The earliest mention of the valley of Hinnom is in (Joshua 15:8; 18:16) where the boundary line between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin is described as passing along the bed of the ravine. On the southern brow, overlooking the valley at its eastern extremity Solomon erected high places for Molech, (1 Kings 11:7) whose horrid rites were revived from time to time in the same vicinity the later idolatrous kings. Ahaz and Manasseh made their children "pass through the fire" in this valley, (2 Kings 16:3; 2 Chronicles 28:3; 33:6) and the fiendish custom of infant sacrifice to the fire-gods seems to have been kept up in Tophet, which was another name for this place. To put an end to these abominations the place was polluted by Josiah, who renders it ceremonially unclean by spreading over it human bones and other corruptions, (2 Kings 23:10,13,14; 2 Chronicles 34:4,5) from which time it appears to have become the common cesspool of the city, into which sewage was conducted, to be carried off by the waters of the Kidron. From its ceremonial defilement, and from the detested and abominable fire of Molech, if not from the supposed ever-burning funeral piles, the later Jews applied the name of this valley—Ge Hinnom, Gehenna (land of Hinnom)—to denote the place of eternal torment. In this sense the word is used by our Lord. (Matthew 5:29; 10:28; 23:15; Mark 9:43; Luke 12:5)
(a noble race), an Adullamite, the friend of Judah. (Genesis 38:1,12) and see Genesis38:20
Hiram, Or Huram
+ The king of Tyre who sent workmen and materials to Jerusalem, first, (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1) to build a palace for David (B.C.1064), whom he ever loved, (1 Kings 5:1) and again, 1Kin 5:10; 7:13; 2 Chronicles 2:16 To build the temple for Solomon, with whom he had a treaty of peace and commerce (1 Kings 5:11,12) He admitted Solomon's ships issuing from Joppa, to a share in the profitable trade of the Mediterranean, (1 Kings 10:22) and the Jewish sailors, under the guidance of Tyrians, were taught to bring the gold of India, (1 Kings 9:26) to Solomon's two harbors on the Red Sea.
+ Hiram was the name of a man of mixed race, (1 Kings 7:13,40) the principal architect and engineer sent by King Hiram to Solomon.
(descendans of Heth), The, the nation descended from Cheth (Authorized Version Heth), the second son of Canaan. Abraham bought from the "children of Heth" the field and the cave of Machpelah, belonging to Ephron the Hittite. 'They were then settled at the town which was afterwards, under its new name of Hebron, to become one of the most famous cities of Palestine, and which then bore the name of Kir-jath-arba. (Genesis 23:19; 25:9) When the Israelites entered the promised land, we find the Hittites taking part against the invader, in equal alliance with the other Canaanite tribes. (Joshua 9:1; 11:3) etc. Henceforward the notices of the Hittites are very few and faint. We meet with two individuals, both attached to the person of David—
+ "Ahimelech the Hittite," (1 Samuel 26:6)
+ Uriah the Hittite," one of "the thirty" of David's body-guard. (2 Samuel 23:39; 1 Chronicles 11:41)
(villagers), The, descendants—the six in order— of Canaan the son of Ham. (Genesis 10:17; 1 Chronicles 1:15) We first encounter the actual people of the Hivites at the time of Jacob's return to Canaan. (Genesis 34:2) We next meet with the Hivites during the conquest of Canaan. (Joshua 9:7; 11:19) The main body of the Hivites were at this time living in the northern confines of western Palestine— "under Hermon, in the land of Mizpeh," (Joshua 11:3)—"in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal Hermon to the entering in of Hamath." (Judges 3:3) comp.2Sam 24:7
(might of Jehovah), an ancestor of Zephaniah the prophet. (Zephaniah 1:1) (B.C. before 635.)
(might of Jehovah), one of those. who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:17) (B.C.410.)
(beloved). This name is found in two places only (Numbers 10:29; Judges 4:11) Hobab was brother-in-law to Moses. (B.C.1530.)
(hiding-place), the place to which Abraham pursued the kings who had pillaged Sodom. (Genesis 14:15) It was situated "to the north of Damascus."
(splendor), one of the sons of Zophah, among the descendants of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:37)
(Praise ye Jehovah), son of the royal line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:24) (B.C. about 406.)
(Praise ye Jehovah).
+ A man of Manasseh, one of the heads of the half tribe on the east of Jordan (1 Chronicles 5:24) (B.C.720.)
+ A man of Benjamin, son of Has-senuah. (1 Chronicles 9:7) + A Levite, who seems to have given his name to an important family in the tribe. (Ezra 2:40) (B.C. before 536.)
(new moon), a woman named in the genealogies of Benjamin, (1 Chronicles 8:9) as the wife of Shaharaim.
(praise ye Jehovah). (Nehemiah 7:43) [Hodaviah]
(majesty of Jehovah), one of the two wives of Ezra, a man of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:19) She is doubtless the same person as Jehudijah in ver.18.
(majesty of Jehovah).
+ A Levite in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 8:7) and probably also (Nehemiah 9:5; 10:10) (B.C.410.)
+ Another Levite at the same time. (Nehemiah 10:13) + A layman; one of the "heads" of the people at the same time. (Nehemiah 10:18)
(partridge), the third of the five daughters of Zelophehad. (Numbers 26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Joshua 17:3) (B.C.1450.)
(whom Jehovah impels), king of Hebron at the time of the conquest of Canaan. (Joshua 10:3) (B.C.1450.)
or more correctly OLOFERNES, was, according to the book of Judith, a general of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians., Judith 2:4, who was slain by the Jewish heroine Judith during the siege of Bethulia. (B.C.350.)
+ A town in the mountains of Judah. One of the first group, of which Debir was apparently the most considerable. (Joshua 15:51; 21:15) [Hilen]
+ A city of Moab. (Jeremiah 48:21) only. No identification of it has yet taken place.
(destruction), the form under which, in (1 Chronicles 1:39) an Edomite name appears which in (Genesis 36:22) is given Hemam.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
The Hebrew debash in the first place applied to the product of the bee, to which exclusively we give the name of honey. All travellers agree in describing Palestine as a land "flowing with milk and honey," (Exodus 3:8) bees being abundant even in the remote parts of the wilderness, where they deposit their honey in the crevices of rocks or in hollow trees. In some parts of northern Arabia the hills are so well stocked with bees that no sooner are hives placed than they are occupied. In the second place the term debash applies to a decoction of the juice of the grape, which is still called dibs, and which forms an article of commerce in the East, it was this, and not ordinary bee-honey, which Jacob sent to Joseph, (Genesis 43:11) and which the Tyrians purchased from Palestine. (Ezekiel 27:17) A third kind has been described by some writers as a "vegetable" honey, by which is meant the exudations of certain trees and shrubs, such as the Tamarix mannifera, found in the peninsula of Sinai, or the stunted oaks of Luristan and Mesopotamia . The honey which Jonathan ate in the wood, (1 Samuel 14:25) and the "wild honey" which supported John the Baptist, (Matthew 3:42) have been referred to this species. But it was probably the honey of wild bees.
Various kinds of hooks are noticed in the Bible, of which the following are the most important:
+ Fishing hooks. (Job 41:2; Isaiah 19:8); Habb 1:15 + A ring, such as in our country is placed through the nose of a bull, and similarly used in the East for leading about lions— (Ezekiel 19:4) where the Authorized Version has "with chains—camels and other animals. Called "thorn" in (Job 41:2) A similar method was adopted for leading prisoners. (2 Chronicles 33:11)
+ The hooks of the pillars of the tabernacle. (Exodus 26:32,37; 27:10) ff.; Exodus 38:13 ff.
+ A vinedressers pruning-hook. (Isaiah 2:4; 18:5; Micah 4:3; Joel 3:10)
+ A flesh-hook for getting up the joints of meat out of the boiling-pot. (Exodus 27:3; 1 Samuel 2:13,14)
+ Probably "hooks" used for the purpose of hanging up animals to flay them. (Ezekiel 40:43)
(pugilist) and Phinehas (brazen mouth), the two sons of Eli, who fulfilled their hereditary sacerdotal duties at Shiloh. Their brutal rapacity and lust, (1 Samuel 2:12-17,22) filled the people with disgust and indignation, and provoked the curse which was denounced against their father's house, first by an unknown prophet, (1 Samuel 2:27-36) and then by Samuel. ch. (1 Samuel 3:11-14) They were both cut off in one day in the flower of their age, and the ark which they had accompanied to battle against the Philistines was lost on the same occasion. (1 Samuel 4:10,11) (B.C.1130.)
+ The mountain on which Aaron died. (Numbers 20:25,27) It was "on the boundary line," (Numbers 20:23) or "at the edge," ch. (Numbers 33:37) of the land of Edom. It was the halting-place of the people next after Kadesh, ch. (Numbers 20:22; 33:37) and they quitted it for Zalmonah, ch. (Numbers 33:41) in the road to the Red Sea. ch. (Numbers 21:4) It was during the encampment at Kadesh that Aaron was gathered to his fathers. Mount Hor is situated on the eastern side of the great valley of the Arabah, the highest and most conspicuous of the whole range of the sandstone mountains of Edom, having close beneath it on its: eastern side the mysterious; city of Petra. It is now the Jebel Nebi-Harim "the mountain of the prophet Aaron." Its height is 4800 feet above the Mediterranean; that is to say, about 1700 feet above the town of Petra, 4800 above the level of the Arabah, and more than 6000 above the Dead Sea. The mountain is marked far and near by its double top, which rises like a huge castellated building from a lower base, and is surmounted by a circular dome of the tomb of Aaron, a distinct white spot on the dark red surface of the mountain. The chief interest of Mount Hor consists in the prospect from its summit, the last view of Aaron—that view which was to him what Pisgah was to his brother.
+ A mountain, entirely distinct from the preceding, named in (Numbers 34:7,8) only, as one of the marks of the northern boundary of the land which the children of Israel were about to conquer. This Mount Hor is the great chain of Lebanon itself.
(mountainous), king of Gezer at the time of the conquest of the southwestern part of Palestine. (Joshua 10:33)
(desert). [Sinai, Or Sinai]
(sacred), one of the fortified places in the territory of Naphtali; named with Iron and Migdalel. (Joshua 19:38) Van Deuteronomy Velde suggests Hurah as the site of Horem.
(conspicous mountain), the name of the desert station where the Israelites encamped, (Numbers 33:32) probably the same as Gudgodah. (10:7)
+ A Horite, son of Lotan the son of Seir. (Genesis 36:22; 1 Chronicles 1:39; Genesis 36:30)
+ A man of Simeon, father of Shaphat. (Numbers 13:5)
and Ho'rites (descendants of Hori), the aboriginal inhabitants of Mount Seir, (Genesis 14:6) and probably allied to the Emim and Raphaim. The name Horite appears to have been derived from their habits as "cave-dwellers" Their excavated dwellings are still found in hundreds in the sandstone cliffs and mountains of Edom, and especially in Petra.
(a place laid waste), or Zephath, (Judges 1:17) was the chief town of a king of a Canaanitish tribe on the south of Palestine, which was reduced by Joshua, and became a city of the territory of Judah, (Joshua 15:30; 1 Samuel 30:30) but apparently belonged to Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:30)
The word "horn" is often used metaphorically to signify strength and honor, because horns are the chief weapons and ornaments of the animals which possess them; hence they are also used as a type of victory. Of strength the horn of the unicorn was the most frequent representative, (33:17) etc., but not always; comp. (1 Kings 22:11) where probably horns of iron, worn defiantly and symbolically on the head, are intended. Among the Druses upon Mount Lebanon the married women wear silver horns on their heads. In the sense of honor, the word horn stands for the abstract "my horn," (Job 16:16) "all the horn of Israel," (1 Samuel 2:3) and so for the supreme authority. It also stands for the concrete, whence it comes to mean king, kingdom. (Daniel 8:2) etc.; Zechariah 1:18 Out of either or both of these last two metaphors sprang the idea of representing gods with horns.
The hornet bears a general resemblance to the common wasp, only it is larger. It is exceedingly fierce and voracious, especially in hot climates and its sting is frequently dangerous. In Scripture the hornet is referred to only by the means which Jehovah employed for the extirpation of the Canaanites. (Exodus 23:28; 7:20; Joshua 24:12) Wisd.12:8. (It is said that the Phaselitae, a Phoenician people, were driven from their locality by hornets; and other examples are given in Paxton's "Illustrations of Scripture," 1:303.—ED.)
(two caverns), a town of Moab, possibly a sanctuary, named with Zoar and Luhith. (Isaiah 15:5; Jeremiah 48:3,5,34)
(native of Horonaim), The, the designation of Sanballat. (Nehemiah 2:10,19; 13:28) It is derived by Gesenius from Horonaim.
The most striking feature in the biblical notices of the horse is the exclusive application of it to warlike operations; in no instance is that useful animal employed for the purposes of ordinary locomotion or agriculture, if we except (Isaiah 28:28) The animated description of the horse in (Job 39:19-25) applies solely to the war-horse. The Hebrews in the patriarchal age, as a pastoral race, did not stand in need of the services Of the horse, and for a long period after their settlement in Canaan they dispensed with it, partly in consequence of the hilly nature of the country, which only admitted of the use of chariots in certain localities, (Judges 1:19) and partly in consequence to the prohibition in (17:16) which would be held to apply at all periods. David first established a force of cavalry and chariots, (2 Samuel 8:4) but the great supply of horses was subsequently effected by Solomon through his connection with Egypt. (1 Kings 4:26) Solomon also established a very active trade in horses, which were brought by dealers out of Egypt and resold, at a profit, to the Hittites. With regard to the trappings and management of the horse we have little information. The bridle was placed over the horse's nose, (Isaiah 30:28) and a bit or curb is also mentioned. (2 Kings 19:28; Psalm 32:9; Proverbs 26:3; Isaiah 37:29) In the Authorized Version it is incorrectly given "bridle," with the exception of (Psalm 32:1) ... Saddles were not used until a late period. The horses were not shod, and therefore hoofs are hard "as flint," (Isaiah 5:28) were regarded as a great merit. The chariot-horses were covered with embroidered trappings (Ezekiel 27:20) Horses and chariots were used also in idolatrous processions, as noticed in regard to the sun. (2 Kings 23:11)
Heb. 'alukah, occurs once only, viz. (Proverbs 30:16) There is little doubt that 'alukah denotes some species of leech, or rather is the generic term for any blood-sucking annelid.
a Merarite Levite, chosen by David to be one of the first doorkeepers to the ark after its arrival in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 16:38) (B.C.1014.)
(refuge), a city of Asher, (Joshua 19:29) The next landmark on the boundary to Tyre.
(save now). "Save, we pray!" the cry of the multitudes as they thronged in our Lord's triumphal procession into Jerusalem. (Matthew 21:9,15; Mark 11:9,10; John 12:13) The Psalm from which it was taken, the 118th, was one with which they were familiar from being accustomed to recite the 25th and 26th verses at the feast of tabernacles, forming a part of the great hallel. Ps.113-118.
(salvation), son of Beeri, and first of the minor prophets. Probably the life, or rather the prophetic career, of Hosea extended from B.C.784 to 723, a period of fifty-nine years. The prophecies of Hosea were delivered in the kingdom of Israel. Jeroboam II was on the throne, and Israel was at the height of its earthly splendor. Nothing is known of the prophet's life excepting what may be gained from his book.
Hosea, Prophecies Of
This book consists of fourteen chapters. It is easy to recognize two great divisions in the book: (1) ch.1 to 3; (2) ch.4 to end. The subdivision of these several parts is a work of greater difficulty—
+ The first division should probably be subdivided into three separate poems, each originating in a distinct aim, and each after its own fashion attempting to express the idolatry of Israel by imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. + Attempts have been made to subdivide the second part of the book. These divisions are made either according to reigns of contemporary kings or according to the subject-matter of the poem. The prophecies were probably collected by Hosea himself toward the end of his career. Of his style Eichhorn says, "His discourse is like a garland woven of a multiplicity of flowers; images are woven upon images, metaphor strung upon metaphor. Like a bee he flies from one flower-bed to another, that he may suck his honey from the most varied
pieces....Often he is prone to approach to allegory; often he sinks down in obscurity."
(whom Jehovah aids).
+ A man who assisted in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem after it had been rebuilt by Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 12:32) (B.C.446.).
+ The father of a certain Jezaniah or Azariah, who was a man of note after, the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezsar. (Jeremiah 42:1; 43:2) (B.C. after 588.)
(haste), one of the early kings of Edom. Genesis36:34,36; 1 Chronicles 1:45,46
(whom Jehovah hears), one of the sons of Jeconiah or Jehoiachin, the last king but one of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:18)
+ The nineteenth, last and best king of Israel. He succeeded Pekah, whom he slew in a successful conspiracy, thereby fulfilling a prophecy of Isaiah. (Isaiah 7:16) In the third year of his reign (B.C.726) Shalmaneser cruelly stormed the strong caves of Beth-arbel, (Hosea 8:14) and made cruel tributary, (2 Kings 17:3) for three years. At the end of this period Hoshea entered into a secret alliance with So, king, of Egypt, to throw off the Assyrian yoke. The alliance did him no good; it was revealed, to the court of Nineveh by the Assyrian party in Ephraim, and Hoshea was immediately seized as a rebellious vasal, shut up in prison, and apparently treated with the utmost indignity. (Micah 5:1) Of the subsequent fortunes of Hoshea nothing is known.
+ The son of Nun, i.e. Joshua, (32:44) and also in Numbers 13:8 Though to there the Authorized Version has Oshea. + Shon of Azaziah, (1 Chronicles 27:20) like his great namesake, a man of Ephraim, ruler of his tribe in the time of King David. (B.C.1019.)
+ One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:23) (B.C.410.)
Hospitality was regarded by most nations of the ancient world as one of the chief virtues. The Jewish laws respecting strangers (Leviticus 19:33,34) and the poor, (Leviticus 23:14) seq. Deuteronomy 15:7 And concerning redemption (Leviticus 25:23) seq., etc. are framed in accordance with the spirit of hospitality. In the law compassion to strangers is constantly enforced by the words "for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." (Leviticus 19:34) And before the law, Abraham's entertainment of the angels, (Genesis 18:1) seq., and Lot's, (Genesis 19:1) are in exact agreement with its precepts, and with modern usage. Comp. (Exodus 2:20; Judges 13:15; 19:17,20,21) In the New Testament hospitality is yet more markedly enjoined; and in the more civilized state of society which then prevailed, its exercise became more a social virtue than a necessity of patriarchal life. The good Samaritan stands for all ages as an example of Christian hospitality. The neglect of Christ is symbolized by inhospitality to our neighbors. (Matthew 25:43) The apostles urged the Church to "follow after hospitality," (Romans 12:13) cf.1Tim 5:10 To remember Abraham's example, (Hebrews 13:2) to "use hospitality one to another without grudging," (1 Peter 4:9) while a bishop must be a "lover of hospitality (Titus 1:8) cf.1Tim 3:2 The practice of the early Christians was in accord with these precepts. They had all things in common, and their hospitality was a characteristic of their belief. In the patriarchal ages we may take Abraham's example as the most fitting, as we have of it the fullest account. "The account," says Mr. Lane, "of Abraham's entertaining the three angels related in the Bible, presents a perfect picture of the manner in which a modern Bedawee sheikh receives travellers arriving at his encampment." The Oriental respect for the covenant of bread and salt, or salt alone, certainly sprang from the high regard in which hospitality was held.
(signet ring), a man of Asher, son of Heber, of the family Of Beriah. (1 Chronicles 7:32) (B.C.1490.)
(signet ring), a man of Aroer, father of Shamu and Jehiel. (1 Chronicles 11:44) (B.C.1046.)
(fullness),the thirteenth son of Heman, "the king's seer," (1 Chronicles 25:4,28) and therefore a Kohathite Levite. (B.C.1014.)
The ancient Hebrews were probably unacquainted with the division of the natural day into twenty-four parts; but they afterwards parcelled out the period between sunrise and sunset into a series of divisions distinguished by the sun's course. The early Jews appear to have divided the day into four parts, (Nehemiah 9:3) and the night into three watches, (Judges 7:19) and even in the New Testament we find a trace of this division in (Matthew 20:1-5) At what period the Jews first became acquainted with the division of the day into twelve hours is unknown, but it is generally supposed they learned it from the Babylonians during the captivity. It was known to the Egyptians at a very early period. They had twelve hours of the day and of the night. There are two kinds of hours, viz. (1) the astronomical or equinoctial hour, i.e. the 24th part of a civil day, and (2) the natural hour, i.e. the 12th part of the natural day, or of the time between sunrise and sunset. These are the hours meant in the New Testament, (John 11:9) etc., and it must be remembered that they perpetually vary in length, so as to be very different at different times of he year. For the purpose of prayer the old division of the day into four portions was continued in the temple service. as we see from (Acts 2:15; 3:1; 10:9)
The houses of the rural poor in Egypt, as well as in most parts of Syria, Arabia and Persia, are generally mere huts of mud or sunburnt bricks. In some parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used, and in certain districts caves in the rocks are used as dwellings. (Amos 5:11) The houses are usually of one story only, viz., the ground floor, and often contain only one apartment. Sometimes a small court for the cattle is attached; and in some cases the cattle are housed in the same building, or the live in a raised platform, and, the cattle round them on the ground. (1 Samuel 28:24) The windows are small apertures high up in the walls, sometimes grated with wood. The roofs are commonly but not always flat, and are usually formed of plaster of mud and straw laid upon boughs or rafters; and upon the flat roofs, tents or "booths" of boughs or rushes are often raised to be used as sleeping-places in summer. The difference between the poorest houses and those of the class next above them is greater than between these and the houses of the first rank. The prevailing plan of eastern houses of this class presents, as was the case in ancient Egypt, a front of wall, whose blank and mean appearance is usually relieved only by the door and a few latticed and projecting windows. Within this is a court or courts with apartments opening into them. Over the door is a projecting window with a lattice more or less elaborately wrought, which, except in times of public celebrations is usually closed. (2 Kings 9:30) An awning is sometimes drawn over the court, and the floor is strewed with carpets on festive occasions. The stairs to the upper apartments are in Syria usually in a corner of the court. Around part, if not the whole, of the court is a veranda, often nine or ten feet deep, over which, when there is more than one floor, runs a second gallery of like depth, with a balustrade. When there is no second floor, but more than one court, the women's apartments—hareems, harem or haram—are usually in the second court; otherwise they form a separate building within the general enclosure, or are above on the first floor. When there is an upper story, the ka'ah forms the most important apartment, and thus probably answers to the "upper room," which was often the guest-chamber. (Luke 22:12; Acts 1:13; 9:37; 20:8) The windows of the upper rooms often project one or two feet, and form a kiosk or latticed chamber. Such may have been "the chamber in the wall." (2 Kings 4:10,11) The "lattice," through which Ahasiah fell, perhaps belonged to an upper chamber of this kind, (2 Kings 1:2) as also the "third loft," from which Eutychus fell. (Acts 20:9) comp. Jeremiah 22:13 Paul preached in such a room on account of its superior rise and retired position. The outer circle in an audience in such a room sat upon a dais, or upon cushions elevated so as to be as high as the window-sill. From such a position Eutychus could easily fall. There are usually no special bed-rooms in eastern houses. The outer doors are closed with a wooden lock, but in some cases the apartments are divided from each other by curtains only. There are no chimneys, but fire is made when required with charcoal in a chafing-dish; or a fire of wood might be made in the open court of the house (Luke 22:65) Some houses in Cairo have an apartment open in front to the court with two or more arches and a railing, and a pillar to support the wall above. It was in a chamber of this size to be found in a palace, that our Lord was being arraigned before the high priest at the time when the denial of him by St. Peter took place. He "turned and looked" on Peter as he stood by the fire in the court, (Luke 22:56,61; John 18:24) whilst he himself was in the "hall of judgment." In no point do Oriental domestic habits differ more from European than in the use of the roof. Its flat surface is made useful for various household purposes, as drying corn, hanging up linen, and preparing figs and raisins. The roofs are used as places of recreation in the evening, and often as sleeping-places at night. (1 Samuel 9:25,26; 2 Samuel 11:2; 16:22; Job 27:18; Proverbs 21:9; Daniel 4:29) They were also used as places for devotion and even idolatrous worship. (2 Kings 23:12; Jeremiah 19:13; 32:29; Zephaniah 1:6; Acts 10:9) At the time of the feast of tabernacles booths were erected by the Jews on the top of their houses. Protection of the roof by parapets was enjoined by the law. (22:8) Special apartments were devoted in larger houses to winter and summer uses. (Jeremiah 36:22; Amos 3:15) The ivory house of Ahab was probably a palace largely ornamented with inlaid ivory. The circumstance of Samson's pulling down the house by means of the pillars may be explained by the fact of the company being assembled on tiers of balconies above each other, supported by central pillars on the basement; when these were pulled down the whole of the upper floors would fall also. (Judges 16:26)
How The Prophetic Gift Was Received
—We learn from Holy Scripture that it was by the agency of the Spirit of God that the prophets received the divine communication; but the means by which the divine Spirit communicated with the human spirit, and the conditions of the latter under which the divine communications were received, have not been clearly declared to us. They are however, indicated. In (Numbers 12:6-8) we have an exhaustive division of the different ways in which the revelations of God are made to man.
+ Direct declaration and manifestation: "I will speak mouth to mouth, apparently, and the similitude of the Lord shall he behold."
+ Dream. not though it must be allowed that Scripture language seems to point out the state of dream and of trance or ecstasy, as a condition in which the human instrument received the divine communications, it does not follow that all the prophetic revelations were thus made. Had the prophets a full knowledge of that which they predicted? It follows from what we have already said that they had not, and could not have. They were the "spokesmen" of God, (Exodus 7:1) the "mouth" by which his words were uttered, or they were enabled to view and empowered to describe pictures. Presented to their spiritual intuition; but there are no grounds for believing that, contemporaneously with this miracle, there was wrought another miracle, enlarging the understanding of the prophet so as to grasp the whole of the divine counsels which he was gazing into, or which he was the instrument of enunciating. Names.—Of the sixteen prophets, four are usually called the great prophets, namely, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, and twelve the Minor prophets, namely, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakuk,Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. They may be divided into four groups: the prophets of the northern kingdom—Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah; the prophets of the southern kingdom—Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah; the prophets of the captivity—Ezekiel and Daniel; the prophets of the return—Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. They may be arranged in the following chronological order, namely, Joel, Jonah, Hoses, Amos, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Use of prophecy.—Predictive prophecy is at once a part and an evidence of revelation; at the time that it is delivered and until its fulfillment, a part; after it has been fulfilled, an evidence. As an evidence, fulfilled prophecy is as
satisfactory as anything can be; for who can know the future except the Ruler who disposes future events? and from whom can come prediction except from him who knows the future? Development of Messianic prophecy.—Prediction, in the shape of promise and threatening, begins with the book of Genesis. Immediately upon the Fall, hopes of recovery and salvation are held out, but the manner in which this salvation is to be effected is left altogether indefinite. All that is at first declared is that it shall come through a child of woman. (Genesis 3:15) By degrees the area is limited: it is to come through the family of Shem, (Genesis 9:26) through the family of Abraham, (Genesis 12:3) of Isaac, (Genesis 25:18) of Jacob, (Genesis 28:14) of Judah, (Genesis 49:10) Balaam seems to say that it will be wrought by a warlike Israelitish King, (Numbers 24:17) Jacob, by a peaceful Ruler of the earth, (Genesis 49:10) Moses, by a Prophet like himself, i.e. a revealer of a new religious dispensation. (15:15) Nathan's announcement, (2 Samuel 7:16) determines further that the salvation is to come through the house of David, and through a descendant of David who shall be himself a king. This promise is developed by David himself in the Messianic psalms. Between Solomon and Hezekiah intervened some two hundred years, during which the voice of prophecy was silent. The Messianic conception entertained at this time by the Jews might have been that of a King of the royal house of David who would arise and gather under his peaceful sceptre his own people and strangers. Sufficient allusion to his prophetical and priestly offices had been made to create thoughtful consideration, but as yet there was, no clear delineation of him in these characters. It was reserved for the prophets to bring out these features more distinctly. In this great period of prophetism there is no longer any chronological development of Messianic prophecy, as in the earlier period previous to Solomon. Each prophet adds a feature, one more, another less clearly combine the feature, and we have the portrait; but it does not grow gradually and perceptibly under the hands of the several artists. Its culminating point is found in the prophecy contained in (Isaiah 52:13-15) and Isaiah 52:53 Prophets of the New Testament .—So far as their predictive powers are concerned, the Old Testament prophets find their New Testament counterpart in the writer of the Apocalypse; but in their general character, as specially illumined revealers of God's will, their counterpart will rather be found, first in the great Prophet of the Church and his forerunner, John the Baptist, and next in all those persons who were endowed with the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit in the apostolic age, the speakers with tongues and the interpreters of tongues, the prophets and the discerners of spirits, the teachers and workers of miracles. (1 Corinthians 12:10,28) That Predictive powers did occasionally exist in the New Testament prophets is proved by the case of Agabus, (Acts 11:23) but this was not their characteristic. The prophets of the New Testament were supernaturally illuminated expounders and preachers.
(incised), a place on the boundary of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:34) It has been recovered in Yakuk, a village in the mountains of Naphtali west of the upper end of the Sea of Galilee.
a name which in (1 Chronicles 6:75) is erroneously used for HELKATH, which see.
(circle), the second son of Aram, and grandson of Shem. (Genesis 10:23) The strongest evidence is in favor of the district about the roots of Lebanon.
(weasel), a prophetess, whose husband, Shallum, was keeper of the wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. It was to her that Josiah had recourse, when Hilkiah found a book of the law, to procure an authoritative opinion on it. (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chronicles 34:22) (B.C.623.)
(place of lizards), a city of Judah one of those in the mountain districts the next to Hebron. (Joshua 15:54)
Hunting, as a matter of necessity, whether for the extermination of dangerous beasts or for procuring sustenance betokens a rude and semi-civilized state; as an amusement, it betokens an advanced state. The Hebrews as a pastoral and agricultural people, were not given to the sports of the field; the density of the population, the earnestness of their character, and the tendency of their ritual regulations, particularly those affecting food, all combined to discourage the practice of hunting. The smaller of catching animals was, first, either by digging a pitfall; or, secondly, by a trap which was set under ground, (Job 18:10) in the run of the animal, (Proverbs 22:5) and caught it by the leg, (Job 18:9) or lastly by the use of the net, of which there were various kinds, as or the gazelle, (Isaiah 51:20) Authorized Version, "wild bull," and other animals of that class.
(coast-man), a son of Benjamin, founder of the family of the Huphamites. (Numbers 26:39) (B.C.1688.)
descendants of Hupham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Numbers 26:39)
(protected), a priest in the time of David. (1 Chronicles 24:13)
(protected), head of a Benjamite family (Genesis 46:21; 1 Chronicles 7:12) Hur (hole).
+ A man who is mentioned with Moses and Aaron on the occasion of the battle with Amalek at Raphidim, (Exodus 17:10) when with Aaron he stayed up the hands of Moses. ver. (Exodus 17:12) (B.C.1491.) He is mentioned again in ch. (Exodus 24:14) as being, with Aaron, left in charge of the people by Moses during his ascent of Sinai. The Jewish tradition is that he was the husband of Miriam, and that he was identical with + The grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the tabernacle. (Exodus 31:2; 35:30; 38:22)
+ The fourth of the five kings of Midian who were slain with Balaam after the "matter of Peor." (Numbers 31:8) (B.C.1451.) In a later mention of them, (Joshua 13:21) they are called princes of Midian and dukes.
+ Father of Rephaiah, who was ruler of half of the environs of Jerusalem, and assisted Nehemiah in the repair of the wall. (Nehemiah 3:9) (B.C. before 446.)
+ The "son of Hur"—Ben-Hur—was commissariat officer for Solomon in Mount Ephraim. (1 Kings 4:8) (B.C.995.)
Hurai, Or Hurai
(linon-weaver), one of David's guard—Hurai of the torrents of Gaash, according to the list of (1 Chronicles 11:32) [Hiddai]
+ A Benjamite; son of Bela, the first-born of the patriarch. (1 Chronicles 8:5)
+ The form in which the name of the king of Tyre in alliance with David and Solomon—and elsewhere given as Hiram, Or Huram— appears in Chronicles. (1 Chronicles 14:1; 2 Chronicles 2:3,11,12; 8:2,18; 9:10,21)
+ The same Change occurs in Chronicles in the name of Hiram the artificer, which is given as Hiram, Or Huram in (2 Chronicles 2:13; 4:11,16) [Hiram, Or Huram]
(very poor), an ancestor of Shallum the husband of Huldah. (2 Kings 22:14) (B.C. before 623.)
(linen-weaver), a Gadite; father of Abihail- (1 Chronicles 5:14)
(haste), a name which occurs in the genealogies of the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 4:4)
Hushai, Or Hushai
(hasting) an Archite i.e. possibly an inhabitant of a place called Erec. (2 Samuel 15:32) ff.; (2 Samuel 16:16) ff. He is called the "friend" of David. (2 Samuel 15:37) comp.1Chr 27:33 To him David confided the delicate and dangerous part of a pretended adherence to the cause of Absalom. (B.C. about 1023.) He was probably the father of Baana. (1 Kings 4:16)
(inhabitant of Hushah), The, the designation of two of the heroes of David's guard.
+ Sibbechai. (2 Samuel 21:18; 1 Chronicles 11:29; 20:4; 27:11) Josephus, however, called him a Hittite.
+ Mebunnai, (2 Samuel 23:27) a mere corruption of Sibbechai.
(who makes haste).
+ In (Genesis 46:23) "the children of Dan" are said to have been Hushim. The name is plural, as if of a tribe rather than an individual. In (Numbers 26:42) the name is changed to Shuham. + A Benjamite, (1 Chronicles 7:12) and here again apparently the plural nature of the name is recognized, and Hushim are stated to be "the sons of Aher."
+ One of the two wives of Shaharaim. (1 Chronicles 8:8) (B.C.1450.)
This word in (Luke 16:16) describes really the fruit of a particular kind of tree, viz. the carob or Ceratonia siliqua of botanists. It belongs to the locust family. This tree is very commonly met with in Syria and Egypt, it produces pods, shaped like a horn, varying in length from six to ten inches, and about a finger's breadth, or rather more; it is dark-brown, glossy, filled with seeds and has a sweetish taste. It is used much for food by the poor, and for the feeding of swine.
(light, sandy soil), the eldest son of Nahor and Milcah. (Genesis 22:21) (B.C. about 1900).
(fixed), according to the general opinion of the Jews, was the queen of Nineveh at the time when Nahum delivered his prophecy. (Nahum 2:7) (B.C. about 700.) The moderns follow the rendering in the margin of our English Bible—"that which was established." Still it is not improbable that after all Huzzab may really be a proper name. It may mean "the Zab country," or the fertile tract east of the Tigris, watered by the upper and lower Zab rivers.
used in the Revised Version for jacinth in (Revelation 9:17) It is simply another English spelling of the same Greek word.
Authorities differ as to whether the term tzabu'a in (Jeremiah 12:9) means a "hyaena" or a "speckled bird." The only other instance in which it occurs is as a proper name, Zeboim, (1 Samuel 13:18) "the valley of hyaenas, "Aquila; (Nehemiah 11:34) The striped hyaena (Hyaena striata) is found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and Persia, and is more common in Palestine than any other carnivorous animals except perhaps the jackal. The hyaena is among the mammals what the vulture is among birds,—the scavenger of the wilderness, the woods and the shore.—It often attacks animals, and Sometimes digs up the dead bodies of men and beasts. From this last habit the hyaena has been regarded as a horrible and mysterious creature. Its teeth are so powerful that they can crack the bones of an ox with ease.—Appelton's Encyc. The hyaena was common in ancient as in modern Egypt, and is constantly depicted upon monuments; it must therefore have been well known to the Jews.
(belonging to marriage), the name of a person occurring twice in the correspondence between St. Paul and Timothy; the first time classed with Alexander, (1 Timothy 1:20) and the second time classed with Philetus. (2 Timothy 2:17,18) (A.D.66-7.) He denied the true doctrine of the resurrection.
a religious song or psalm. (Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16) Our Lord and his apostles sung a hymn after the last supper. In the jail at Philippi, Paul and Silas "sang hymns" (Authorized Version "praises") unto God, and so loud was their song that their fellow prisoners heard them.
(Heb. ezob.) The ezob was used for sprinkling in some of the sacrifices and purifications of the Jews. In consequence of its detergent qualities, or from its being associated with the purificatory Services, the psalmist makes use of the expression, "Purge me with ezob ." (Psalm 51:7) It is described in (1 Kings 4:33) as growing on or near walls. (Besides being thus fit for sprinkling, having cleansing properties and growing on walls, the true hyssop should be a plant common to Egypt, Sinai and Palestine, and capable of producing a stick three or four feet long since on a stalk of hyssop the sponge of vinegar was held up to Christ on the cross. (John 19:29) it is impossible to precisely identify the plant because the name was given not to a particular plant but to a family of plants associated together by Hyssop, qualities easily noticed rather than by close botanical affinities. Different species of the family may have been used at different times. The hyssop of the Bible is probably one (or all) of three plants:—
+ The common hyssop is "a shrub with low, bushy stalks 1 1/2 feet high, small pear shaped, close-setting opposite leaves all the stalks and branches terminated by erect whorled spikes of flowers of different colors in the varieties. It is a hardy plant, with an aromatic smell and a warm, pungent taste; a native of the south of Europe and the East."—ED.)
+ Bochart decides in favor of marjoram, or some plant like it, and to this conclusion, it must be admitted, all ancient tradition points. (This is the Origanum maru, the z'atar of the Arabs. The French consul at Sidon exhibited to Dr. Thomson ("The Land and the Book," i.161) a specimen of this "having the fragrance of thyme, with a hot, pungent taste, and long slender stems." Dr. Post of Beirut, in the American edition of Smith's large Dictionary, favors this view.—ED.)
+ But Dr.Royle, after a careful investigation of the subject, arrives at the conclusion that the hyssop is no other than the caperplant, or Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. The Arabic name of this plant, asuf, by which it is sometimes though not commonly, described, bears considerable resemblance to the Hebrew. "It is a bright-green creeper, which climbs from the fissures of the rocks, is supposed to possess cleansing properties, and is capable of yielding a stick to which a sponge might be attached."—Stanky, "Sinai and Palestine," 23.—It produces a fruit the size of a walnut, called the mountain pepper.